In the intervening years, Hubbard's expanding organization left a trail of controversy across four continents as medical authorities attacked Scientology's therapeutic claims and governments resisted its efforts to gain the special protections that Western societies accord religions.
"Don't ever defend. Always attack. . . . Only attacks resolve threats," Hubbard advised his organization in 1960.
Hubbard attacked psychiatry, the FBI, the Central Intelligence Agency and the Internal Revenue Service.
Cooley said that Hubbard, in his will, left "a very generous provision" for his wife, Mary Sue Hubbard, and "certain of his children."
Hubbard was estranged from his eldest son, Ronald de Wolf. In 1983, De Wolf contended in a highly publicized legal action that Hubbard was either dead or incapacitated and that a trustee should be appointed to administer church funds. A Riverside County judge ruled that Hubbard was alive and capable of handling his own affairs.