Soviet First Deputy Premier Ivan V. Arkhipov arrived in China for discussions on what he termed the enormous potential for cooperation between Moscow and Peking. He refused, however, to say if he Would discuss the political issues that have chilled Soviet-Chinese relations in recent years. Arkhipov came to Peking to attend the first meeting of the Chinese-Soviet Commission on Economic, Trade, Scientific and Technological Cooperation, set up last year. He also will meet Chinese Vice Premier Yao Yilin, who visited Moscow last July and signed a $14-billion, five-year trade agreement with the Soviets. Arkhipov and Yao agreed to meet annually.