Testing a product on the kind of people who eventually will use it is hardly a new idea. But at Protype, a Sun Valley company that makes an office machine that is a cross between an electronic typewriter and a word processor, testing is done with a twist.
The company tries out its equipment on what Stephen Kurtin, Protype president, diplomatically calls the "most ordinary" secretaries. To find them, Kurtin every so often asks a temporary help agency to send over a group of bad secretaries. The theory is that, if they can figure out how to work Protype's machine, it will be a breeze for the others.
Protype's strategy of keeping its product simple and easy to use appears to be working. The 2-year-old company has emerged as a leading manufacturer of display typewriters, which are electronic typewriters with small, attached display screens shaped somewhat like the head of the extraterrestrial movie character "E.T."
Kurtin predicts that Protype's sales, only about $6 million last year, will exceed $20 million and could reach $40 million this year. He said he expects annual sales to reach $100 million within three years. The privately held firm is breaking even now and should be profitable this year, Kurtin said.
Protype's growth has been fueled by $17 million from a group of prominent investors, including San Francisco-based Montgomery Securities, Brentwood Associates in Los Angeles and Banque National de Paris in France.
Success Attracts Competition
But Protype's success in the display typewriter market has attracted competition from major office-equipment manufacturers. They include Atlanta-based Harris-Lanier, which two months ago introduced a similar product, and Italy's Olivetti, which last summer brought out its version. The leading competitor, however, is Xerox, the giant Stamford, Conn.-based company. It sells a machine more elaborate and expensive than Protype's, but which nonetheless competes for the same space on a secretary's desk.
That desk space accounts for most of the $3 billion-a-year business known as the text preparation market. Until recently, the market was dominated by electric typewriters. They have been replaced widely over the last few years, however, by so-called electronic typewriters--which have electronic memories that store text--and more elaborate word-processing systems that allow users to write and edit on a computer.
Half of Chores Inapplicable
Kurtin and other industry experts believe that secretaries always will need typewriters for simple chores, despite the advances in word processors and personal computers. Some industry studies show that nearly half of a secretary's job involves such chores as typing letters, forms, vouchers, small reports, labels and index cards--jobs some experts say are too difficult to perform on word processors and personal computers.
"A lot of people thought the typewriter was going to disappear," said Clifford M. Lindsey, vice president with Dataquest, a San Jose research firm. "But that didn't happen. It's our belief that a good portion of the electronic typewriter companies will survive the onslaught of the personal computers, but a lot of them will have to add screens."
The display typewriter that Protype and its competitors make looks something like a desk-top computer. Like a computer, it has a video display screen and the capacity to store pages of text.
Elaborate Gear Unneeded
The words a secretary types are displayed on the video screen, appearing exactly the way they would look printed out on paper. The typist can move paragraphs and make other changes before printing the final version. Makers of display typewriters say that the machines give users many of the editing advantages of word processors without having to buy elaborate computer equipment.
"People who buy computers just to use as typewriters are really paying for a lot of capacity they really don't need," said Randy Courtney, a vice president with Harris-Lanier.
Protype's display typewriter has a suggested retail price of $2,495. To keep costs down, the company does its manufacturing in Japan, Taiwan, Hong Kong and Singapore. About 55 of Protype's 100 employees, however, work at the company's headquarters and distribution center in Sun Valley.
Kurtin didn't always believe in the typewriter's future. He founded a company named Lexitron in 1972 that introduced the first video display word processor, and soon afterward he proclaimed the typewriter dead. Now, Kurtin says, he's convinced typewriters will coexist with sophisticated equipment in the office of the future.
Industry consultants call Kurtin, 41, a visionary in the office-equipment field. A gregarious, restless man, Kurtin received a patent at the age of 14 for a three-dimensional television system. He later studied at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where he earned his bachelor's and master's degrees in physics in four years.
Doctorate at Caltech