Contradicting the rationale behind recent changes in speed limits that permit a 65 m.p.h. maximum on non-urban superhighways, two motor vehicle crash studies have found that isolated rural roadways have the most dismal injury and fatality rates.
According to one research team, whose findings were reported last week, rural counties outstrip large, populous areas in terms of motor-vehicle death toll by factors of several hundred to one. Esmeralda County in Nevada, for instance, had the equivalent death rate of 558 people killed per 100,000 population while Loving County, Tex., had an equivalent rate of 1,456.
This contrasted with New York City (2.5 deaths per 100,000) and Philadelphia, Pa. (4.1). The study, published last week in the New England Journal of Medicine, was conducted by the Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health and the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety. It came several weeks after a Metropolitan Life Insurance Co. evaluation of regional motor vehicle fatality differences found the safest regions of the country to be the South-Central and Mid-Atlantic states and the most dangerous the Mountain and West South-Central states.
High in New Mexico, Wyoming
The highest annual death rates for motor vehicle crashes were recorded, Metropolitan Life found, in New Mexico (80.8 deaths per 100,000 for all age groups), Wyoming (85.9), Arizona (60.6), Montana (61.2) and Nevada (66). Statewide in Wyoming, more than 134 of every 100,000 young men 15 to 24 died in car crashes. California's rate was 51.1 for all men. Rhode Island had the lowest rate--25.7.
While small populations and possibly poor local conditions on rural streets and highways might explain some of the difference, both of the new studies found remarkable consistency among comparatively unpopulated counties and states. The Johns Hopkins study was the first ever to look at fatalities on a county-by-county basis.
"Ironically, the current impetus for raising the 55-m.p.h. speed limit comes primarily from states in the West," the Johns Hopkins team concluded, "where fatality rates on rural interstate highways are more than twice the national rate." Observed Metropolitan Life researchers: "The high social and financial costs to society from motor vehicle accidents demand even more stringent public programs to curb this preventable form of suffering."
Lefties and Preemies
Extremely premature babies weighing a pound or less at birth--whose survival is becoming increasingly common--have been found to have at least one quirk that will remain with them all of their lives: At least one study found they were left-handed more than half the time.
It's too early to determine if this oddity among premature births--the overall rate of left-handedness is 8% to 10%--will influence the caliber of major-league pitching. But a team of doctors in Australia and Boston has found that in a study group of 115 babies treated in a neonatal intensive care unit, 54% of extreme preemies were left-handed.
Two theories have been advanced to explain the distinction: left-handedness is caused by slight brain damage sustained during the extremely early birth or that very premature infants do not complete a process of brain development that results in the vast majority of full-term infants being right-handed. In the journal Lancet, the researchers, from Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston and the University of Queensland in Australia, speculated that shortened brain development is the most likely cause.
Rating Jogging Bras
In the era of high-tech fitness and steadily growing interest in recreational sports among women, it was probably inevitable that someone would conduct a sophisticated test of leading brands of jogging bras. A research team at Utah State University has accomplished this objective, finding the Exercise Sports Top and Lady Duke bra brands to be the best performers.
The researchers devised a testing model in which 59 women jogged on a treadmill at a carefully controlled 6 m.p.h. while precise monitoring equipment measured vertical motion and other characteristics of their breasts. Eight different bra brands were evaluated for their ability to prevent breast discomfort and injury during exercise. The bras ranged in price from $7.50 to $29.95.
But the researchers emphasized that many variables can affect the comfort of a jog bra. They suggested in the journal Physician and Sports Medicine that large-breasted women select bras more rigidly constructed than small-breasted women, who may find stretchy bras satisfactory.