NEW YORK — The New-York Historical Society name keeps the hyphen because "everyone spelled New-York that way" at the time of its early 19th-Century founding.
Within its rather plain Neoclassical building on Central Park West between 76th and 77th streets, the society has the world's largest collection of Tiffany glass, all but two of John J. Audubon's 435 original "Birds of America" watercolors, a gallery of paintings from the Hudson River School, advertising art from the 1700s to the 1900s, Early American silver, and a vast array of Americana folk art.
In addition, its library contains one of the best collections of New York newspapers extant, including the city's first, William Bradford's Gazette. Among its manuscripts, pamphlets, prints and more than 600,000 volumes are a collection of genealogical material, a history section covering every state in the union, the authorization of the Louisiana Purchase signed by Napoleon and a great many of George Washington's letters.
Articles associated with the first President are placed throughout the building. A slant-top desk on an upper floor was used by him, when as commander in chief of the Continental Army he signed the September, 1780 death warrant of British spy Maj. John Andre, confederate of Benedict Arnold.
The stately Beekman family coach on the second floor reputedly was used by Washington to ride to his inauguration at Federal Hall in 1789.
A table used by the Federal Congress and the iron railing from the balcony at Federal Hall where Washington was sworn in also are on display. These items are significant not only to the early history of the United States, but to that of the historical society. For not only was Federal Hall--on Wall Street in Lower Manhattan--the nation's first capitol but the place where the society was organized in 1804 by John Pintard.
Thomas Jefferson was President, and the group's main function was to hold occasional meetings at which historical addresses and discourses were presented. By 1813 the society had begun to develop its library.
Because of its predilection to preserve items not necessarily considered valuable (something many a saver of old magazines, cracked cups and outdated clothing could relate to), the society kept outgrowing its quarters. That trait is what makes its collections so valuable.
Moving from one location to another, the society fought off bankruptcy and had to sell part of its collection to repay a debt in 1825. Appropriately at that time, it and several other cultural groups had space in the New York Institution, formerly the city almshouse. Rent was one peppercorn annually.
Although the society's financial position often was precarious, its membership rolls were prestigious. Presidents John Adams, Thomas Jefferson and James Monroe, authors Washington Irving and James Fenimore Cooper and newspaperman Horace Greeley were among its early members.
Even French Gen. the Marquis de Lafayette was elected to the society. He and his son visited the United States in August, 1824. As the nation's first national guest, he was accorded a rousing welcome wherever he went, including New York City. A punch bowl in the museum's silver collection depicts his landing at Castle Garden in New York.
The society's present location is its eighth. The central portion was completed in 1908, the remainder about 30 years later.
Special Programs, Tours
Special exhibits are mounted throughout the year, lecture series and concerts are presented, special programs and tours are given to school children and a museum store recently was opened.
Debbie Nadler of the museum staff says the public has responded to the overtures; attendance has increased. Other methods also are being used to orient visitors to the society.
Says Nadler: "About two years ago a docent program was begun. We have about 40 volunteer docents who devote many hours to the museum. Tours are set up for groups, others are more randomly given. We post tour times in the morning. People can call to check on times, and groups can set up tours by phone."
Although there is an emphasis on items relating to New York, the museum actively collects 18th- and 19th-Century American art and antiques and the special shows relate to the overall collection. Nadler explained that some of the temporary exhibits, such as the recent P. T. Barnum display, are prepared from the museum's collection.
The most popular permanent exhibits are the collection of Tiffany glass, the paintings in the Hudson River School Gallery and the Audubon watercolors.
The Tiffany collection was donated to the society by Viennese-born Dr. Egon Neustadt, who began collecting the lamps in the 1930s. From his first purchase at a Greenwich Village antiques shop, he and his wife added to the collection with windows, vases, desk sets and the last remaining glass used in Louis Tiffany's Corona, Queens factory. The donation was made in January, 1984, shortly before Neustadt's death.
Early American Artists