Archie and Jughead wouldn't recognize the current comic-book scene. A parents group that monitors "hazardous" comics sprang up this year in Fresno, and in Illinois a comic-book store was raided on charges of selling obscene material to minors.
In the books themselves, the characters lust after one another, swear, make and lose friends and struggle with such problems as alcoholism, drug addiction, abandonment and teen-age pregnancy.
Some of these new "alternative" comic books are published by Fantagraphics Books of Agoura. Gary Groth, company co-owner, believes comic books are emerging finally as a bona fide art form, if only they can be defended from self-righteous censors and the intimidating forces of capitalism.
"For 50 years, comic books have been a junk medium created by hacks or enthusiastic adolescents who are taken advantage of by businessmen who don't care about making any sort of intelligent or literate contribution to American culture," he said.
But Groth, 32, of Westlake Village, contends that new comic books can draw readers who are disaffected by a sterile modern culture.
"I'd like to see the same people who are reading John LeCarre and James Dickey read comics," he explained in his company's cluttered offices.
Publishes Trade Review
Frantagraphics Books is a small company, publishing comic books, large-sized comics collections and the trade review Comics Journal. The most successful of the line is the "Love and Rockets" comic book series by Oxnard brothers Gilbert and Jaime Hernandez.
Each does his own drawings and stories--Gilbert's are often about people in the mythical Mexican town of Palomar, and Jaime's are about young Latinos in modern Los Angeles.
"We started publishing the Hernandez brothers in 1982," said Groth. "They're among the best of the new cartoonists. Their work is relevant. It isn't just super heroes blasting around the galaxy."
Within the industry, however, Groth is known more for the Comics Journal than for the comics his company publishes. Groth was a student at the University of Maryland when he and a friend wrote the first issue. The Comics Journal, which he has put out sporadically since 1976, features industry news, interviews with cartoonists, reviews of new comic books and opinion pieces on the comics business.
"It's a very independent magazine," Groth explained. "So far we've been sued for libel and defamation of character three times and won three times."
In the most recent suit, comic-book writer and novelist Michael Fleisher sued Groth and science-fiction writer Harlan Ellison, charging that his reputation was damaged by statements Ellison made in an interview published by Comics Journal in 1979. Ellison had said Fleisher's work showed a "twisted mentality" and that Fleisher was "certifiable," meaning insane.
Fleisher filed suit in 1980, asking $2 million in damages. Last December, following a four-week trial in New York, an eight-person jury decided in favor of Groth and Ellison.
Dean Mullaney, co-publisher of Eclipse Comics, was one of several industry figures who gave depositions or testified at the trial. In a telephone interview, Mullaney termed both Eclipse and Fantagraphics "progressive" companies that avoid the super-hero genre while publishing new artists and pioneering high-quality products such as thick, oversize collections called "graphic albums."
Eclipse, situated an hour north of San Francisco in Forestville, puts out about 25 comic books a month, he said. Industry giant Marvel of New York publishes 50 to 60 a month, whereas Fantagraphics puts out 10 or fewer.
In his deposition, given on behalf of plaintiff Fleisher, Mullaney said Comics Journal "uses controversy and sensationalism to sell copies of the magazine."
Mullaney and Groth have been at odds since the trial. Mullaney lauded the Comics Journal for exposing hypocrisy in the industry, but said it cannot be trusted for balanced reporting.
"It's more a fan magazine as a trade-news publication," he said.
Noteworthy, however, is the fact that editor Groth will run uncomplimentary assessments of his own company. A February, 1987, review of the Fantagraphics Books output found much of it to be "pretty bad."
Groth was an avid comics reader as a child and continued the habit as he grew older. There are tens of thousands like him, and this growing market of post-adolescent readers is responsible for the widening of subjects and styles in today's comic books.
Average Reader Is Male
"We did a survey a while ago and our average customer is a male between 18 and 25 years old," said Don Myers, manager of the Northridge outlet of Golden Apple Comics, a three-store chain. "It isn't just kids. Like any popular medium, there's a lot of schlock, but comics are getting better and better."
Myers, 28, who wore a purple Grateful Dead T-shirt and a skull-in-a-top-hat earring, said that super-hero comics such as Batman and Superman still outsell more literate comics about 2 to 1.