South African students, teachers and civil rights groups demonstrated against new rules requiring universities to report illegal protest activity to the government or risk losing crucial state subsidies. The rules also require university councils to prevent civil disobedience and to discipline anyone that the government accuses of illegal activity. "The university . . . is required to police students, to become collaborators of the apartheid government," said Firoz Cachalia, a student leader at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, where 1,500 rallied against the rules. At the University of the Western Cape, about 500 students demonstrated.