MOSCOW — In a rare comment on internal American politics, a Soviet Foreign Ministry spokesman said Tuesday that right-wing Republicans are trying to spoil the atmosphere for next month's Soviet-American summit.
The spokesman, Gennady I. Gerasimov, apparently was alluding to the controversy over whether Soviet leader Mikhail S. Gorbachev would address a joint meeting of Congress during his first visit to the United States Dec. 7 to 10.
Conservative members of President Reagan's party objected to the proposal that Gorbachev be invited to speak to Congress, indicating that they would lead a walkout if he did. No formal invitation was issued, and the idea appears to have faded, replaced by the suggestion that he meet with leading members of Congress.
Gerasimov said that many other Americans have invited Gorbachev to visit their homes, schools and farms, indicating a friendly attitude.
Because the Soviet leader will be so busy during three days of meetings with Reagan, Gerasimov said, it does not appear likely that he will be able to accept any of the private invitations. On the other hand, he added, there are groups within the United States--including those who are planning mass demonstrations--who want to make the pre-summit climate worse.
"The right wing of the Republican Party is interested in that," he said at a news briefing.
Gerasimov, reading a prepared statement, said that "influential forces opposed to any change for the better in Soviet-American relations have become visibly more active." Referring to the furor over a Capitol Hill address by Gorbachev, the spokesman said dozens of senators and members of Congress sent invitations to him, including the leaders of both the Senate and the House, seeking "substantive and constructive" talks.
"This natural desire for direct communication . . . has caused a veritable panic among the ultras attempting to complicate such a dialogue in every way," Gerasimov added.
"But it is, of course, not this sentiment of blind hostility that marks the dominant feeling of Americans," he concluded. "Most of them are looking forward to the coming Soviet-American summit with approval and hope."
Seven members of the official Soviet delegation were named Tuesday to accompany Gorbachev to Washington on Dec. 7 for the three-day meeting.
Foreign Minister Eduard A. Shevardnadze, Politburo member Alexander N. Yakovlev, Communist Party Secretary Anatoly F. Dobrynin, a longtime Soviet ambassador to the United States, and Marshal Sergei F. Akhromeyev, chief of the armed forces general staff, will be the senior advisers. Others in the delegation will be Vladimir M. Kamentsev, a deputy premier; Anatoly S. Chernyayev, a personal aide to Gorbachev, and Yuri V. Dubinin, the ambassador to Washington.
No details were provided of Gorbachev's schedule. However, Gerasimov said he did not rule out the possibility that the Soviet leader would hold a news conference before his Dec. 10 departure.
In Geneva, where Secretary of State George P. Shultz and Shevardnadze put the finishing touches to a treaty on intermediate nuclear weapons, Shultz did reveal some details of the summit schedule.
Shultz told a news conference that there will be five working meetings between Reagan and Gorbachev--two each on Dec. 8 and Dec. 9 and a final one on Dec. 10. The ceremonial signing of the treaty is expected after the final meeting.
In addition, Shultz said there will be a state dinner at the White House, and a return dinner hosted by Gorbachev at the Soviet Embassy. Shultz will be host at a luncheon for Gorbachev and his wife, Raisa, and Gorbachev will give a breakfast for Vice President George Bush.