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The Washington Summit : NUCLEAR ARMS CONTROL AGREEMENTS SINCE 1959

December 09, 1987

Treaty: Antarctic Treaty Date Signed: 1959 Signatories: U.S., Soviet Union and 21 other nations Purpose: Prohibits establishment of bases for nuclear weapons, introduction or testing of nuclear weapons and disposal of radioactive waste in Antarctica. Treaty: Hot Line Agreement Date Signed: 1963 Signatories: U.S.-Soviet Union Purpose: Established crisis communications links between superpowers. Further agreements signed in 1971, 1984 Treaty: Limited Test Ban Treaty Date Signed: 1963 Signatories: U.S., Soviet Union and 103 other nations Purpose: Prohibits nuclear tests in outer space, in atmosphere or under water. Treaty: Latin American Nuclear-Free Zone Date Signed: 1967 Signatories: U.S., Soviet Union and 26 other nations Purpose: Prohibits production of, use of or threat to use nuclear weapons in the region. Treaty: Outer Space Treaty Date Signed: 1967 Signatories: U.S., Soviet Union and 78 other nations Purpose: Forbids weapons of mass destruction in outer space; pledges only peaceful uses of the moon. Treaty: Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Date Signed: 1968 Signatories: U.S., Soviet Union and 125 other nations Purpose: Forbids help to non-nuclear states in developing nuclear weapons; bans efforts to develop them; requires disarmament talks. Treaty: Seabed Arms Control Agreement Date Signed: 1971 Signatories: U.S., Soviet Union and 66 other countries Purpose: Prohibits deployment of weapons of mass destruction on ocean floor. Treaty: Agreement on Measures To Reduce Risk of Nuclear War Date Signed: 1971 Signatories: U.S.-Soviet Union Purpose: Outlines procedures to prevent nuclear accidents and avoid/ misunderstandings during periods of crisis. Treaty: Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty Date Signed: 1972 Signatories: U.S.-Soviet Union Purpose: Limits testing and development of missile defenses; permits one ABM site on each side. Treaty: Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT I) Date Signed: 1972 Signatories: U.S.-Soviet Union Purpose: Prohibits production of new long-range missiles; limits sea-based launchers and submarines. Expired 1977 Treaty: Agreement on Prevention of Nuclear War Date Signed: 1973 Signatories: U.S.-Soviet Union Purpose: Provides for crisis consultations, crisis avoidance procedures. Treaty: Threshold Test Ban Treaty Date Signed: 1974 Signatories: U.S.-Soviet Union Purpose: Limits nuclear tests to 150 kilotons, provides for information exchange on tests. Unratified, though both parties have pledged to observe terms. Treaty: Peaceful Nuclear Explosions Treaty Date Signed: 1976 Signatories: U.S.-Soviet Union Purpose: Same as above; unratified but observed. Treaty: Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT II) Date Signed: 1979 Signatories: U.S.-Soviet Union Purpose: Sets ceilings for long-range nuclear systems. Unratified but both nations have pledged to continue observing ceilings. Would have expired in 1985. Source: U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency

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