John S. Driscoll, 53, has been named editor of the Boston Globe, where he has worked for 30 years and has been executive editor since 1982. Benjamin Taylor, 40, assistant executive editor, has been named executive editor. Both appointments are effective Jan. 1. The Globe has not had an editor since Michael C. Janeway resigned in March, 1986. The title was dropped then, and executive editor became the highest position in the editorial department.