Four troubled Louisiana savings and loans have been acquired by Pelican Homestead & Savings Assn. in a transaction that will cost the Federal Savings & Loan Insurance Corp. $294 million. According to federal regulators, Pelican Homestead is a healthy S&L that has nearly $1 billion in assets and 32 offices in Louisiana. The four financial institutions it has bought have a total of $836 million in assets. The transaction was structured to allow FSLIC to share in Pelican's future profits and give the government agency an ownership interest in the financial institution. FSLIC has resolved 44 failures in the savings and loan industry in 1987.