WASHINGTON — Gov. George Deukmejian's last-minute plea to President Reagan to restore California to the list of states vying to build the world's largest atom smasher failed today as the Department of Energy announced the seven states chosen. Energy Secretary John S. Herrington said the official short list of finalist states offering the best sites for the multibillion-dollar superconducting super collider include Texas, Illinois, North Carolina, Tennessee, Arizona, Michigan and Colorado. New York did not make the list. The "preferred" site will be announced in August.