The bulletin handed out to worshipers at First Lutheran Church of Camarillo the first Sunday in January proudly trumpeted the birth of a new denomination, the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, now the nation's fourth-largest Protestant body.
However, the 200 or so members of First Lutheran gathered inside the simple adobe brick and wood sanctuary that day were not about to celebrate the ELCA's formal start-up.
For them, the day marked the start of a less well-charted course. Rather than join the ELCA, as the overwhelming majority of the nation's nearly 5,000 other former American Lutheran Church congregations had done, the Camarillo congregation had opted out of the mainstream in favor of an obscure and decidedly more conservative branch of Lutheranism.
Depending on one's viewpoint, First Lutheran members are either courageous believers willing to face criticism for holding to their Christian faith, or reactionary rebels seeking to prevent change from affecting their church.
Either way, the congregation--31 years old, with 751 overwhelmingly Anglo members--appears united behind its controversial pastor, the Rev. Orville Hiepler, and willing to go its separate way.
One critic of the congregation's action is the Rev. Nelson Trout, who as South Pacific District bishop for the ALC, sought to steer First Lutheran into the ELCA fold.
"The congregation just reflects the conservative views of its pastor," said Trout, who was the ALC's only black bishop and who now works for the ELCA. "He pushed his people so hard, they felt they just had to leave. They never gave merger a chance."
Hiepler defends the move as justified by the relatively liberal direction taken by the ELCA.
"We are the ones in line with historical Lutheranism, not those 'New Age' Lutherans who have gotten away from it in the new church," he said.
"I guess we'll have to do something about those bulletins, though," the 67-year-old, North Dakota-born pastor added with a grin. "We haven't had time, but we do need to get some that reflect where we stand."
Sweeping Lutheran Changes
The past year has brought sweeping changes to Lutheranism in this country. After a decade of talk and planning, the Lutheran Church in America, at the time, this nation's largest Lutheran denomination, the small Assn. of Evangelical Lutheran Churches and the ALC completed the process of merging into the new 5.3-million member ELCA.
The process was not without its detractors, however. Chief among them were conservatives within the ALC who objected to the new denomination's constitution, which was crafted by the more liberal leaders of the three merging church bodies.
Their aim was to move American Lutheranism beyond its Midwestern, predominantly Scandinavian and Germanic ethnic roots so that it might flourish in the urban melting pot of contemporary America.
But conservatives, including Hiepler and the majority of his congregation, deplored the constitution's insistence that a quota system be employed to ensure that minorities, women and lay people are adequately represented on committees and at conventions of the new denomination.
"If I was told we had to send one Negro, one woman or one Hispanic, I'd be upset," said Jack Forbes, a member of First Lutheran's council of elders.
"Don't get me wrong, I'm not against that, but I'd want to know if they are qualified, and if they weren't and we just had one or two to choose from, I just wouldn't want them representing me."
Quota System Defended
In response, Bishop J. Roger Anderson of the ELCA's Southern California West Synod based in Los Angeles, said the quota system was included in the constitution "as a way to follow through on the church's commitment to move toward fairer representation.
"We needed the challenge and I think those who object should consider just what is their commitment to an inclusive church."
Conservatives also bristled at what they perceived as the constitution's emphasis on social activism over evangelism and biblical literalism, and they fumed over the new denomination's association with the National Council of Churches and the World Council of Churches, both of which they consider to be soft on communism and supportive of Third World revolutionary groups.
"The ELCA is just too liberal all around," said Mike Owens of Moorpark, a First Lutheran member who works for Hughes Aircraft at Point Mugu Naval Air Station.
Because the ALC's constitution required individual congregations to vote on the merger process, conservatives had a forum in which to voice their dissatisfaction.
When the results were in, almost a fifth of the ALC's nearly 5,000 congregations had voted against merger, including First Lutheran of Camarillo. At First Lutheran, 87% of the members opposed merger, and a few of those who supported the move left the congregation, according to interviews with current members.