Patricia A. Goldman, vice chairman of the National Transportation Safety Board, is resigning. Goldman will become senior vice president-corporate communications for USAir Inc. on Feb. 16. Her resignation from the NTSB, a Transportation Department agency that investigates air, rail and highway accidents, takes effect Feb. 5. Goldman was appointed to the five-member board in 1979 and became its vice chairman in 1982. Last month, she headed the board's investigation into the crash of a Pacific Southwest Airline plane in California in which 43 people were killed.