NEW YORK — February is National Heart Month.
The Bureau of Nutrition of the New York City Department of Health said cook for your heart by preparing foods that are low-fat and low-cholesterol.
Diets high in fat, especially saturated fat, and/or high in dietary cholesterol can elevate the blood cholesterol level and increase the risk of developing coronary heart disease, the bureau said.
How do you cook for your heart?
The bureau said traditional recipes can often be modified in fat content by substituting low-fat milk for whole milk, low-fat yogurt or cottage cheese for sour cream, and by reducing the total amount of fat in diets.
Using liquid vegetable oil or a margarine that is predominantly liquid vegetable oil instead of shortening or butter provides a more favorable ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated fat.
And reducing the number of eggs or using a cholesterol-free egg substitute in recipes lowers the cholesterol content.
When eating at home, select foods carefully and make prudent adjustments in recipes and methods of preparing foods:
--Choose lean meats and trim off visible fat before cooking.
--Substitute liquid vegetable oil or a margarine that is predominantly liquid vegetable oil for butter and shortening.
--Use skim or evaporated skim milk in place of whole milk and cream.
Adding Interest to Meals
Contrasts add to the interest, attractiveness and taste-appeal of meals, so use tart-sweet citrus fruits or juices with bland cereals or toast at breakfast; serve soup or a hot beverage with sandwiches or cold salads at lunch; offer crisp raw vegetables with soft textured main-dish casseroles, and serve dark green, deep-yellow or red vegetables with pale poached fish or poultry.
In a restaurant you are limited to foods that appear on the menu, or that can be prepared to order, but you can:
--Specify that foods cooked-to-order be prepared with liquid vegetable oil or without fat.
--Order roast meats without gravy.
--Trim off visible fat on meats before eating.
--Order baked potatoes without added butter or sour cream dressing.
--Select a salad in place of cooked buttered vegetables.
The Bureau of Nutrition recommends the following books:
"Good Food Book: Living the High-Carbohydrate Way" by Jane Brody (W. W. Norton: 1985). More than 300 recipes plus information on nutritional content and health benefits of foods and equipment for the kitchen. (Also available in Bantam paperback.)
"Eat Smart for a Healthy Heart Cookbook" by Dr. Denton A. Cooley and Carolyn E. Moore (Barron's: 1987). An explanation of heart disease and weight control along with recipes from the Texas Heart Institute.
"The Living Heart Diet," by Dr. Michael DeBakey (Raven Press: 1984). More than 500 recipes low in cholesterol and saturated fat. The book includes a section on low-sodium recipes, a discussion of cardiovascular disorders and dietary treatment of hypertension, hyperlipidemias and obesity.
"Eating Healthy Cookbook" by Edwin Keister and Sally Keister and the editors of Better Homes and Gardens Books (Meredith Corporation: 1986). Includes a guide to evaluating eating habits, nutrient analysis chart and principles of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans as well as recipes prudent in fat and moderate in sodium.
"Eat Well--Be Well Cookbook," by Metropolitan Life (Simon and Schuster: 1986). A practical, inexpensive book of recipes and suggestions for following the Dietary Guidelines for Americans.
"Family Cookbook," the American Diabetes Assn.-the American Dietetic Assn. (Prentice-Hall: 1980-1987), three volumes. Addressed primarily to the diabetic with basics of good nutrition, tips for curbing calories and uses of spices and herbs. Recipes show exchanges. Volumes 2 and 3 update and expand information to include the role of fiber and includes adjustments for recently revised exchange lists, as well as additional recipes.
"The American Heart Assn. Cookbook," by the American Heart Assn. (David McKay Co.: 1986) More than 500 recipes designed to reduce fat and cholesterol in the diet. Includes explanation of lipo-proteins and their role in coronary heart disease.
The Bureau of Nutrition has leaflets on planning low-fat, low-cholesterol meals that are available at no cost: "The Prudent Diet" is a 32-page leaflet that includes more than 50 recipes and lists foods to choose and to avoid; "Prudent Entertaining" contains recipes for appetizers, dips, spreads and desserts; "Tasty & Prudent Foods for Festive Occasions" includes recipes for hors d'oeuvres and party fare. For low-fat menus, there is the leaflet "Heart Saving Menus."
Single leaflets only are available. Enclose a self-addressed, stamped, business-size envelope with each leaflet request. Mail requests to: Bureau of Nutrition, New York City Department of Health, 93 Worth St., Room 714, New York, N.Y. 10013.