A judge in the Nazi war crimes trial of John Demjanjuk reprimanded a defense attorney for comparing the proceedings to France's "Dreyfus affair," in which a Jewish officer in the French army was falsely convicted of treason. Attorney Paul Chumak told the Jerusalem trial during closing arguments that "Capt. (Alfred) Dreyfus was convicted at the beginning of the century on the basis of false documents in a wave of anti-Semitism. Paralleling this with anti-Ukrainianism, this trial has all the earmarks of the Dreyfus trial." The court ordered Chumak to retract the statement.