WASHINGTON — Giving President Bush a major victory, the House on Thursday approved a massive rescue package for the federal insurance fund that protects savings and loan deposits up to $100,000.
Taxpayers would bear the heaviest burden of the legislation, which could cost as much as $300 billion over the next 30 years.
The package, similar to a bill previously approved by the Senate, would spend billions of dollars to close or sell hundreds of financially crippled S&Ls and pay off their depositors who have insured accounts.
House and Senate conferees now will work on reconciling their differing bills to send a compromise measure to the President within the next few weeks.
The House action, by a vote of 320 to 97, gave the President most of what he sought from Congress when he proposed early this year to undertake the biggest financial bailout in American history. The rescue for the S&L insurance fund dwarfs any other financial aid program undertaken by the U.S. government, and the losses to thrift institutions from fraud will be unprecedented.
"A bailout greater than Chrysler and New York City, a fraud . . . greater than Teapot Dome," the plan will cost $500 for every man, woman and child in America, Rep. Jim Leach (R-Iowa) said.
Earlier Thursday, the House overwhelmingly supported the President's demand for strict new capital standards on S&Ls to avoid a repetition of the current crisis.
On a vote of 326 to 94, the House rejected a proposal that would have exempted S&L owners from supplying billions of dollars in new cash as a fiscal foundation for their institutions.
A strong appeal from the President--and the threat of a veto for the vital bill--crushed a nascent revolt in the ranks of House Republicans, who had been subjected to an intense lobbying campaign by S&L executives.
The amendment by Rep. Henry J. Hyde (R-Ill.) would have required lengthy and elaborate hearings before regulators could force S&L owners to put up additional cash to meet the bill's new financial standard: $3 in cash furnished to an S&L by its owners for every $100 in loans made by the thrift institution.
The S&Ls sought to continue their ability to count as capital billions of dollars in good will, which is the intangible value of a company beyond its cash and physical assets.
But the President wants a cash-only standard, and he delivered a broadside against the use of good will as capital in a letter read by House Minority Leader Robert H. Michel (R-Ill.) just before the vote.
Approval of the Hyde amendment "would render this bill unacceptable to me," the President said in his letter. He said that "giving recognition to good will as capital . . . is not justifiable.
"There should be no mistake. This matter goes to the very heart of my determination to clean up the abuses of the past among the savings and loans, about which every voter is entitled to be outraged."
Two area S&Ls, for instance, are among 142 thrifts nationwide in which good will and other intangible capital exceeds other components of capital as of Sept. 30., according to a survey published in March in American Banker, a trade publication.
Charter Savings Bank in Fountain Valley had $18.9 million in good will but only $13.6 million in other capital, the paper said. Southern California Savings & Loan in Beverly Hills had $274 million in good will and $260.2 million in other capital.
Hyde said his amendment, assuring a hearing before good will could be barred, was needed on the grounds of fairness to S&Ls. Healthy S&Ls had helped the government by taking over failing thrifts and accepting good will certificates when the government had no funds to close the ailing institutions, he said.
But big majorities in both parties voted against the amendment, preserving the standards established in the bill passed by the House Banking Committee.
Voting against the amendment were 212 Democrats and 114 Republicans. It was supported by 38 Democrats and 56 Republicans.
The House adopted an amendment by Rep. Doug Barnard Jr. (D-Ga.) to establish special Justice Department task forces in Dallas and Los Angeles to investigate and prosecute frauds against financial institutions. S&Ls in Texas and California have suffered the biggest share of the national losses from illegal activities.
There are more than 3,600 fraud cases involving losses of $100,000 or more across the nation, including at least 500 cases in California.
8 Lawsuits in Orange County
In Orange County alone, regulators have accused former operators at eight of 11 failed S&Ls of fraud in pending civil lawsuits. In addition to civil suits, former executives at the defunct Ramona Savings & Loan in Orange and North America Savings & Loan in Santa Ana are awaiting trial on criminal fraud charges.