As the Voyager spacecraft transmitted colorful pictures of Neptune to Earth, assistant project manager Ellis Miner bounced from interviews on the Cable News Network to a network news program to the British Broadcasting Corp. faster than he could say "frozen nitrogen crystals."
When he finished with television, radio beckoned. He appeared on six call-in shows throughout the nation and scores of live radio interviews, including KNX and KFWB. During the three to four days before Voyager's closest approach to Neptune, he said he spent 13 hours daily at the Jet Propulsion Lab in Pasadena, about 10 hours a day answering press queries.
Miner's backbreaking agenda during a major news event is not unusual for those considered experts by the media.
When China convulsed under the pressure of student revolt recently, Kenneth Lieberthal appeared on "Nightline," CNN's "Newswatch," the "MacNeil/Lehrer NewsHour" and "This Week With David Brinkley." For a week, the specialist in Chinese politics at the University of Michigan averaged eight radio and four television interviews a day.
"The calls would begin between 5 or 6 in the morning and not end until 10:30 at night," he recalled. "I was either being interviewed or handling requests for interviews 100% of the time."
These smooth pros, who thrive on frantic schedules, enjoy the exposure, the chance to reach millions of viewers, instead of dozens of students, and the boost in consulting jobs.
But newcomers used to lonely pursuit of arcane issues sometimes find the spotlight vexing. They complain that the media demands cut into their leisure time, take them away from research and force them to communicate directly with the public. Then, if they are even remotely successful with the media, they may worry that colleagues regard them as superficial.
Judith Siegel was more than surprised by the response to a paper she published last winter. With her first scholarly papers, the associate professor of public health at UCLA got no more than two or three requests for interviews. But when she published findings on how men and women resist sexual assault, reporters kept her on the phone for a full day and deluged her with questions for two weeks.
"You could not put the phone down before another (call) was there," she said. "Plus the phone in the (UCLA) media office was ringing all day. So there were people waiting in line to interview me."
All the major morning news shows--NBC's "Today," CBS' "This Morning" and ABC's "Good Morning America"--competed for her appearance.
Siegel, who had planned to leave town on vacation, asked the UCLA news bureau to decide which show she should appear on. "Believe it or not," she said, "I had lost interest in publicity. This was supposed to be my vacation and it was anything but relaxing."
The news bureau scheduled her to appear on the "Today" show. "They wanted to fly me to New York," Siegel said, "but I didn't want to because it would take two days and it was too cold in New York in January. I agreed to do it in studio in Burbank, but what I didn't realize is that it would be live in New York. So they picked me up in a limousine at 3:30 a.m. and I went on at 4:45."
Through all the interviews, Siegel worried because she thought the media were stretching her findings.
"The article I wrote was a summary of findings about what people did in response to threats of assault, and the media were trying to make me turn it into recommendations about what you should do in the event of assault," she said.
After relying on professional jargon for years to speak with colleagues, some newcomers have trouble learning to talk in simple lay terms.
"Your own professional jargon is different," said UCLA pediatrician Judy Howard, whose specialties includes child abuse and prenatal drug exposure, "and it's important that you not be misinterpreted. . . . You try to make it extremely clear. . . . When you haven't chosen politics as a profession, you have to learn all this."
If they answer the questions intelligently and concisely just once, the media phone them again and again.
"I don't think the media necessarily go to the best scholars in the sense of people doing the greatest theoretical work or most sophisticated modeling," said Lieberthal, who nonetheless thinks good commentary on China requires good scholarship.
"I think the media tend to go back to people like me who can summarize things well--people who can do a good 40-second sound bite or who in newspapers can speak the king's English rather than political science or sociology or economics," Lieberthal said.
While the work is demanding, there are payoffs. Their success can lead to sometimes hefty consultancy fees. Several professional teams have hired UC Berkeley sociologist Harry Edwards, an expert on the black athlete, for example, and he has worked with the baseball commissioner's campaign to move blacks into management.