Description: Adult in breeding plumage is iridescent black with a yellow bill. In fresh fall plumage, feathers are tipped with white and buff, giving an overall speckled appearance; bill becomes brownish. Short, square tail, stocky body, and short, broad-based pointed wings that appear pale gray from below.
Habitat: Mostly open fields, woodland, suburbia and cities.
Diet: Other inverts and berries.
Displays: Courting male
adopts variety of postures while vocalizing; highest intensity includes flailing wings in hunched stance.
Nest: In any handy cavity; slovenly cup of grass, twigs, forbs, rootlets and straw.
Eggs: Pale bluish or greenish white, marked with browns.
Natural history notes: Starlings were introduced in New York City's Central Park one hundred years ago and quickly spread across the continent. Bold and aggressive, it often competes successfully with native species for nest holes. Varied call notes include squeaks, warbles, chirps and twittering; also imitates the songs of other species. Outside of nesting season, starlings are usually seen in large flocks, sometimes in company with grackles and blackbirds. Within one century, the 60 starlings introduced to North America have increased to over 200 million.