The sun had just risen over the foothills of Santa Paula, but second-grader Twila Johnson was already hard at work, squinting through her glasses at a page of arithmetic.
On a wall of the one-room schoolhouse, looking down over the 8-year-old girl and her classmates, was a faded photograph of her great-great-grandfather, a man named Matthew Atmore.
"My great-great-grandfather was the one who built this school," Twila said. "It makes me feel kind of famous."
The 94-year-old Santa Clara School building, known better in Ventura County as the Little Red Schoolhouse, stands out in a rural area of Santa Paula as a remnant of the past.
Tucked between thickets of citrus groves and pepper trees, it is one of the last examples of the frontier school to be found in Southern California.
The daughters and sons of the farmers and ranchers who homesteaded the area learned to read and write within the same walls where 35 children from kindergarten through sixth grade study today.
Some students complain of problems in attending a school that has less curricular variety than other elementary schools.
But parents and school officials see that as a trade-off, saying the children of Santa Clara School get more personal attention than students who attend larger school districts.
They speak of the one-room school as a place where the main emphasis is on basic educational values--the same three R's that have been taught at the Little Red Schoolhouse since its inception.
Throughout California, the trend is away from such vestiges of frontier American education. Between 1985 and 1989, the number of one-room schoolhouses in the state shrank from 42 to 32 as districts consolidated or built extra rooms to accommodate growth, according to the state Department of Education.
But school officials say the Little Red Schoolhouse, the only school in a special district of about 100 voters, is in no danger.
So strong is the faith in the school's approach to academics that its trustees could find no compelling reason to link up with larger, better-financed school districts, they said.
"There doesn't seem to be any reason for it," said Jean Faught, a school trustee. "If there were some really honest, valid reasons, I'm sure it would be considered."
At the moment, however, there is one important concern for the trustees of Santa Clara School. The school's principal and only teacher, Valerie Sare, is planning to resign after 15 years, and the district has not found a replacement.
Stricken with multiple sclerosis, Sare said she has become too dependent on her wheelchair to keep teaching.
Sare will remain for the rest of the school year, however, maintaining an iron grip on the class, where students are expected to apply themselves to her standards and to keep up with their homework even when they are sick.
The first classroom for the school on Telegraph Road, built in 1879, had only one door, two windows and was plainly furnished with wood benches and a blackboard constructed of planks painted black.
That school was replaced in 1896 with the building that stands today. The schoolhouse, built at a cost of $2,634, remained a plain battleship gray until the 1960s, when it re-emerged with a coat of brilliant scarlet.
It was the bright-red building that caught Sare's eye 15 years ago when she passed through town with her mother on vacation.
"I said, 'You know what I'd really like to do is teach at that little red schoolhouse,' " Sare recalled telling her mother. A week later, her mother discovered that the teaching post was vacant, and Sare snared the job two weeks before school started.
Sare said she treats her students as family members and her classroom more as a home than a school. There students get Sare's homemade goodies each Monday for excelling on lessons, but they also have chores.
They learn to find their own supplies, raise flags in the morning and lower them in the evening. Sare's two daughters have worked as teaching aides, and her son developed the computer program she uses to keep grades.
Some families have sent children to the school since its beginning, children who returned as adults to become trustees.
The line of alumni for one such family can be traced through four generations, from Myrtle Dudley, one of the first school trustees and chronicler of the school's history, to Kim Harmon, 7, now a second-grader in the school.
Robert Dudley, 60, is Myrtle Dudley's son and Kim Harmon's grandfather. He remembers pumping water from the schoolyard well and ringing the school bell as a child attending school during World War II.
Dudley recalled air raid drills at the school in which children were told that the best defense against possible strafing by Japanese bombers was to dive behind a grove of pepper trees.
Although no Japanese warplanes ventured into the Santa Paula area during World War II, Dudley said the students at the Santa Clara School were always eager to have an excuse to run out of class.