Texas state legislators in Austin moved quickly on a $528-million school financing compromise, raising the sales tax a quarter-cent and passing other taxes and fee increases to pay for it. Increases in taxes on cocktails and tobacco, as well as some state fees, were passed by both houses and sent to Gov. Bill Clements. Democrats in the Legislature and the Republican governor agreed on the package last week, after being deadlocked three months over how to meet a state Supreme Court order that more money be allocated to schools in low-income districts. The legislation would add money to a $13.5-billion-a-year school system and raise an extra $100 million for financially strapped social service programs.