Both the Soviet Union and the United States are reducing their military presence in the Pacific, but the ocean remains home to an awesome armada of some 2,500 combat ships of various types operated by the nations on its rim. Some of the principle naval, air and other military bases that dot the region are identified on these maps.
The United States maintains forces in Japan, Korea and the Philippines--three countries with which it has mutual security treaties. The U.S. is reducing its force levels in the Pacific as part of a worldwide 25% military cutback, although it has confirmed its willingness to maintain troops in Japan and Korea. The long-term future of two major Philippine installations--Clark Air Base and Subic Bay Naval Base--remains uncertain pending completion of ongoing negotiations between the two governments against a Sept. 16, 1991, deadline.
The Soviet Union maintains Treaties of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance with both North Korea and Vietnam, and maintains a much reduced naval presence at Cam Ranh Bay. China also has a friendship treaty with North Korea.
A number of multilateral security and defense treaties also bind Pacific Rim nations. A Five-Power Defense Arrangement links Australia, New Zealand and Britain to the defense of Malaysia and Singapore. Australia and the United States continue to cooperate under the ANZUS Pacific Security Treaty, although New Zealand, which opposes visits by nuclear-armed warships, has since been excluded from tripartite consultations. The South East Asia Collective Defense Treaty signed in 1954 by Australia, France, New Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippines, Thailand, Britain and the United States also remains in force, although France and Pakistan have since withdrawn and the South East Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO), which was established under the treaty, has been dissolved. While primarily intended to foster economic cooperation, the Association of South East Asian Nations, formed in 1967 by Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand, also includes defense and security considerations on its agenda.
* TYPE OF MILITARY BASE COUNTRY 1 Army, Air Force, Navy Soviet Union 2 Army, Air Force, Navy Soviet Union 3 Navy Soviet Union 4 Navy Soviet Union 5 Army, Air Force, Navy Soviet Union 6 Navy North Korea 7 Army, Air Force North Korea 8 Navy North Korea 9 Headquarters United Nations 10 Headquarters U.S.-Korea Joint Forces 11 Headquarters Korea-based U.S. Forces 12 Army United States 13 Navy South Korea 14 Army United States, South Korea 15 Air Force United States, South Korea 16 Air Force United States, South Korea 17 Marines United States, South Korea 18 Navy South Korea 19 Navy South Korea 20 Navy China 21 Navy China 22 Navy China 23 Navy United States 24 Air Force United States 25 Navy Philippines 26 Navy Philippines 27 Navy Australia 28 Navy Australia 29 Navy United States, Japan 30 Navy United States, Japan 31 Navy Japan 32 Navy Japan 33 Navy Japan 34 Air Force United States 35 Air Force United States 36 Army United States 37 Marine Air Corps United States 38 Naval, Air United States 39 Marines United States 40 Navy, Air Force United States 41 Air Force, Navy United States 42 Air Force United States 43 Air Force United States 44 Navy, Marines United States 45 Navy, Air Force United States 46 Navy Indonesia 47 Navy Indonesia 48 Navy Malaysia 49 Navy New Zealand 50 Navy Singapore 51 Navy Taiwan 52 Navy Thailand 53 Navy Thailand 54 Navy Vietnam, Soviet Union 55 Navy Vietnam 56 Navy Vietnam 57 Navy Vietnam 58 Navy Vietnam
* Numbers refer to Pacific Rim maps
SOURCES: The Military Balance 1990-1991; Guide to (U.S.) Military Installations
U.S. Forces in the Pacific Rim
COUNTRY ACTIVE MILITARY TOTAL INCLUDING CIVILIAN Korea 41.3 71.8 Japan/Okinawa 46.6 116.1 Philippines 13.8 48.2 Guam 7.0 20.9 Hawaii 41.9 112.8
In addition there are 77,305 active military personnel in the Pacific Command based ashore in the continental United States
Figures are for Sept. 30, 1990
Source: U.S. Pacific Command
Total Armed Forces
The armed forces of the Pacific Rim range from tiny New Zealand's to the Soviet Union's nearly 4-million-strong military. Country: Total Armed Forces (In millions) Australia: .07 China: 3.03 Indonesia: .28 Japan: .25 North Korea: 1.11 South Korea: .75 Malaysia: .13 New Zealand: .01 Philippines: .11 Singapore: .06 Soviet Union: 3.99 Taiwan: .37 Thailand: .28 United States: 2.12 Vietnam: 1.05