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Workers Held in Near-Slavery, Officials Say

August 03, 1995|GEORGE WHITE | TIMES STAFF WRITER

State and federal agents raided a garment factory in El Monte early Wednesday that allegedly held dozens of Thai immigrants in virtual slavery behind barbed wire for years, forcing them to labor in servitude to supposedly pay off creditors.

The pre-dawn raid by a multi-agency team headed by the California Department of Industrial Relations discovered more than 60 Thai nationals living and working at a gated apartment complex ringed with barbed wire and spiked fences.

The raid exposed conditions that seemed to belong to an earlier era.

Workers told government agents and The Times that they had been held against their will and that they were forced to toil day and night for less than $2 an hour. Some said they were told they must repay the cost of transporting them from Thailand, yet the detention continued after the "debt" was repaid.

One worker--who provided only her nickname, "Yat"--said she has not been allowed to leave the complex in the 2 1/2 years she has lived there, even though her debt was repaid long ago.

"I don't like it," she said through an interpreter. "But I have to accept it because they paid my way over here."

"I never would have believed a situation like this could exist in the United States, and I hope I never see it again," said California State Labor Commissioner Victoria Bradshaw, who supervised the search and the questioning. "All the agencies involved plan to prosecute to the full extent of the law."

Bradshaw said the investigation was prompted by informants, some of whom had escaped the apartment complex, a two-story, seven-unit structure in a residential area in the 2000 block of Santa Anita Avenue. Investigators said they have been staking out the site for weeks.

State agents blocked the driveway of the complex about 5:30 a.m., forced open a barbed gate and roused the workers from their beds one by one. As each apartment was secured, the inhabitants were brought out, gathered together and ordered to sit on the ground near their apartments.

Translators assured the workers that they would not be punished and that their testimony would be sought for prosecutiotions and kidnaping charges are a possibility."

"The seriousness of the situation seems to indicate that there was mistreatment of workers," Flynn added.

In all, the INS detained 63 people from the El Monte site. They are all being held at detention facilities at the INS district office in Los Angeles.

Bradshaw said investigators discovered more than $750,000 in cash and blocks of gold in a safe at the complex. They also found records indicting the transfer of hundreds of thousands of dollars of cash to banks, she said.

Investigators at the El Monte site said the immigrants toiled an average of 84 hours a week for an average of $1.60 per hour--far below the minimum wage of $4.25 an hour. Some of the workers said ring operators deducted half their pay until they repaid the cost of transportation from Thailand.

State officials said the workers are entitled to potentially thousands of dollars to compensate for the difference between the pay they received and the minimum wage. Cash seized Wednesday may be used for that purpose, Bradshaw said.

Some of the workers said they were virtually imprisoned in the complex.

"They took my passport away and won't let me out," said Vuttiphong Vutthiboompronsak, a 48-year-old man who said he has worked at the compound since entering the United States on a tourist visa four years ago. "I work from 7 [a.m.] to midnight. They make you work."

Speaking through an interpreter, Vutthiboompronsak said ring organizers in Thailand offered him employment in the United States and helped him get a tourist visa from the U.S. Embassy in that country.

Labor Commissioner Bradshaw said investigators have learned that at least two "brokers" in Thailand have been sending Thais to the El Monte-based operation. When settled in El Monte, Bradshaw said, some of the employees were threatened indirectly to induce them to work as they did.

"Some of the employees said there would be retribution against their family in Thailand if they didn't cooperate," she said.

Investigators do not know how long the apartment complex has been operated as a garment-making facility. However, one worker said she has worked for the sweatshop operators for seven years.

It is illegal to produce garments in a residence for safety reasons and because regulators cannot check labor conditions in such an environment. The complex was not registered as a contractor with the Department of Industrial Relations, authorities said.

A document requesting the search warrant said an informant warned authorities "that there is a 24-hour watchman at the said apartment complex watching outside and guarding the workers, who are forced to work long hours without being allowed to leave the premises . . . . He also observed that the glass windows in the second floor were paneled with plywood three-quarters of the way to the top."

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