Even by 1995 standards, it was a particularly grisly act: two men spraying flammable liquid through the slot of a Brooklyn subway token booth, holding a match in the window and seriously burning a 50-year-old agent inside.
To some, Sunday's crime was all the more disturbing because it was a virtual replay of two scenes in Columbia Pictures' film "Money Train," starring Wesley Snipes and Woody Harrelson, which had premiered only four days earlier.
Hollywood's critics were quick to claim that violence-laden movies and television programs provoke injurious "copycat" behavior--an assertion that renewed debate about filmmakers' rights and responsibilities.
At a Monday press conference in New York City, Mayor Rudolph W. Giuliani and Police Commissioner William Bratton linked the subway incident to the film. And in his second major attack on Hollywood in the past six months, Senate Majority Leader Bob Dole (R-Kan.)--speaking Monday on the Senate floor--blasted the film industry and called for a "Money Train" boycott.
"Those who continue to deny that cultural messages can and do bore deep into the hearts and minds of our young people are deceiving themselves and ignoring reality," Dole said.
Still, the issue goes beyond entertainment, said Jonathan Kuntz, a visiting professor at UCLA's department of film and television. "Movies have become a political football, a stick with which to beat liberal Hollywood," he said. "Everyone in the country resents the film industry, which is seen as spoiled and nouveau riche. It's an easy target--a good one to run against."
Even those relegating Dole's comments to presidential politics-as-usual, however, find themselves wrestling with the fact that life, too often, has imitated art.
Franco Zeffirelli's 1968 film, "Romeo and Juliet," was said to have set in motion a number of suicides. In 1984, a Milwaukee man splashed gasoline on his wife and torched her to death after watching the TV movie "The Burning Bed." And in August, 1993, three Ohio girls ignited aerosol spray and set fire to their bedroom--a technique demonstrated on MTV's "Beavis and Butt-head."
Two years ago, Walt Disney Co. took the unprecedented step of cutting a scene from "The Program" after a teen-ager died and two were critically injured imitating a football player who lay down on the center line of a busy highway in the film. And police blamed the 1994 murder of a stepmother and half-sister on a Utah teen-ager's obsession with the "Natural Born Killers" killing spree.
"You can't blame the writers or directors," asserted Mark Johnson, producer of "Bugsy." "Those guys who committed the tollbooth crime weren't law-abiding citizens who would have been home doing their homework had they not seen the film. Still, that doesn't free us from our responsibility as filmmakers. I thought long and hard about inserting a scene into 'A Little Princess,' which had our 10-year-old heroine escaping from an evil landlady by climbing across a 2-by-4 propped two stories up between buildings. We decided that the circumstances justified that moment but you have to consider the audience."
Research conducted by the American Psychiatric Assn. indicates that media brutality increases aggressive behavior and causes a "desensitization" toward violence, said Los Angeles-based child psychologist Robert Butterworth. An American Psychiatric Assn. study showed that the average child watches 100,000 acts of TV violence and witnesses 8,000 TV murders before the end of elementary school--but only people with a predisposition toward violence act out.
"It's true that violence-prone young people can get ideas," Butterworth said. "But do we censor our media because of it? Are we going to let that one person in 270 million shape our society and culture? Filmmakers reflect what's going on, holding up a mirror to what is . In a democratic society you have to take risks. The messenger shouldn't be killed."
Indeed, "Money Train's" tollbooth scenes are based on actual episodes that occurred in the New York subways in the late 1980s. Several nonfatal arson attacks have occurred since then, raising doubts about whether the latest incident was a cause-and-effect action or just a striking coincidence.
Officials of New York's Metropolitan Transit Authority maintain they objected to shooting the arson segments in the subways; the producers shot them on a Los Angeles sound stage. Columbia declined to comment, but released a statement condemning the "isolated act of senseless violence."
Although the film industry needs to be more responsible, said Richard Jewell, a professor in USC's School of Cinema-Television, it's unfair to hold it accountable for deviant behavior.