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The Lucy Chronicles

Before Betty Friedan and Gloria Steinem, Lucille Ball Played an Unapologetically Ambitious Woman Who Challenged Her Husband's Authority and Wasn't Afraid to Be Funny. Was Lucy TV's First Feminist? Ask June Cleaver.

May 04, 1997|Steven Stark | This article is adapted from "Glued to the Set: The 60 Television Shows and Events that Made Us Who We Are Today," published this month by The Free Press. Author Steven Stark is a commentator for National Public Radio and has written extensively for the Atlantic Monthly and other publications

This spring marks the 40th anniversary of the production of the last episode of "I Love Lucy." It is an occasion worth noting. The contributions of this show to television history are legendary: First sitcom to be a hit. First show to be No. 1 three years in a row. First show to be filmed live before a studio audience. In fact, calling "I Love Lucy" the most popular television show of all time is hardly an overstatement. For years, dozens of local stations ran the show in syndication, and the cable channel Nickelodeon does today. TV Guide had it right when it wrote that Lucy has "a face seen by more people, more often, than the face of any human being who ever lived."

Above everything else, however, "I Love Lucy" stands out because its superstar was a woman. Rarely, if ever, in the history of entertainment has a woman attained a following far beyond that of any man's.

What's more, Lucy's popularity has lasted through perhaps the greatest change in the status and perception of women in history. What kind of woman had this kind of hold on the public? And what does it tell us about television that perhaps its greatest and longest-lasting star--its Elvis or Chaplin--was a woman?

There was little in Lucille Ball's background to suggest she would play this role. Before 1951, when "I Love Lucy" went into production, Ball had appeared in more than 50 movies, earning the nickname "Queen of the B's." Married to Cuban bandleader Desi Arnaz, Ball left the movies to become the 1948 co-lead of a popular weekly radio series, "My Favorite Husband"--an ironic title since the Arnaz-Ball marriage, after years of career-enforced separation, was on the rocks. When CBS approached Ball and asked her to transfer the show to TV, Lucy refused unless her real husband were cast in the lead, bringing them together.

CBS, however, refused to hire a Cuban, so Ball and Arnaz went on the road in 1950 as a vaudeville act to prove their popularity. When CBS remained adamant, the duo formed their own production company and began producing scripts loosely based on their own lives. Lucille Ball would become housewife Lucy Ricardo, married to Cuban bandleader Ricky Ricardo. The cast would include another older couple--the Mertzes--their best friends and landlords, who lived in their Manhattan apartment building. Like "My Favorite Husband," the plots would center around the antics of Lucy. In the late summer of 1951, "I Love Lucy" finally went into production, with Desilu Productions assuming most of the financial burden. The show premiered on CBS on Oct. 15, 1951, and within four months it was No. 1.

Who, then, was Lucy Ricardo? She was, first, what most married women were in those days--a housewife, and then a mother. "I wanted our characters to have problems," said Ball. "I wanted to be an average housewife. A very nosy but very average housewife. And I wanted my husband to love me."

Still, Lucy Ricardo was hardly the contented matron portrayed in the popular press of the time. Long before Betty Friedan gave voice to the restless aspirations of a generation of housebound women, Lucy was trying to get her own show-business career, to get out of the house, to change into men's clothes and to make her husband appreciate her more. In this show, the women bonded against the men: "I Love Lucy," said the title, but who really loved her more--Ricky or Ethel? (Lucy certainly loved Ethel more than Fred did.) By defying her "place," Lucy rebelled against all middle-class norms. Though these crises were portrayed humorously, they were often not laughable subjects, perhaps the reason why Ball once said, "I never thought that I was funny."

Yet despite what Ball thought, she was hilarious. According to TV scholar Lynn Spigel, Lucy's TV persona had its roots in the conventions of female characters introduced into vaudeville in the late 19th century. Those vaudeville performers developed "a set of conventions by which women's humor was deemed more respectable" to a mass audience: Women always had to be the butt of jokes; they had to downplay their good looks or appear scatterbrained to seem less threatening to the audience; they always had to be linked in the public eye with a man. Thus, co-star Vivian Vance was forced to gain 20 pounds to look more frumpy for her role; the glamorous Ball would frequently dress down and tie her hair up in a kerchief for performances.

Lucy's rebellion was also less threatening because its target was a Cuban immigrant; it would have been quite a different thing to take shots at Jim Anderson or Ward Cleaver. Though CBS officials originally rejected the show because they thought mass audiences wouldn't accept a Cuban, it may be that audiences would have accepted nothing but. Everyone--including men--could identify with Lucy; few in the audience ever mistook themselves for a Desi.

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