Munir Bashir, 67, internationally known Iraqi musician often called the "emir of the oud." Bashir retired four years ago as director general of musical affairs at Iraq's Culture Ministry and moved to Budapest, Hungary, with his Hungarian wife, Agnes, also a musician. The son of an oudist, Bashir learned to play the six-stringed, pear-shaped instrument from the renowned Arab musician Sharif Moheidin. The instrument, the ancestor of the European lute, is believed to have originated in Iraq, where it is shown in 2,000-year-old stone carvings. Although the oud was more commonly used to accompany singers, Bashir elevated it to a solo instrument and performed around the world. He experimentally added strings to his oud to produce a fuller sound. As Iraq's top music official for 16 years, Bashir promoted Arabic music in the nation's schools, established a ballet and music school for children and set up the Iraqi Institute of Melody Studies for teenagers. On Monday in Budapest of a heart attack.