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A Restoration of City Bridges and a Renewal of Civic Faith

October 08, 2000|JAMES RICCI

MERRILL BUTLER, MAN OF MODESTY, IS ELUDING US EVEN NOW. His son, daughter-in-law and I have divided the ranks and files of graves on a hilltop at Forest Lawn in Glendale and walk in methodical pursuit of him.

After 30 minutes, Merrill Butler Jr. calls out, "Here we are. Here he is."

Butler, who is 75, drops to all fours and brushes away dried grass clippings from the grave marker; he blows detritus from the lettering on the weathered bronze tablet, which reads:


Merrill Butler


Beloved Husband

Devoted Father




Not a single word about the bridges, the crowning achievement of Merrill Butler's 40 years of service to the people of Los Angeles, and his enduring legacy to them.

As the city's Engineer for Bridges and Structures, Butler guided the construction of nine extraordinarily graceful concrete-arch bridges over the Los Angeles River between 1923 and 1933.

The bridges--1st Street, 4th Street, 6th Street, 7th Street, 9th Street, Spring Street, Cesar E. Chavez Boulevard (formerly Macy Street), Olympic Boulevard and Glendale-Hyperion--were built to relieve congestion at the river, where pedestrian, automobile and trolley traffic intersected with copious railroad activity. The new spans replaced ugly, rusting, but easily manufactured iron-truss structures.

Under Butler's guiding hand, the new bridges were not to be mere efficient conveyors of traffic, but stylish, unique civic monuments that would uplift the populace and engender pride in the expanding city. They were designed, variously, in neoclassical, Spanish Colonial, Streamline Moderne and Gothic Revival styles. Many incorporated concrete benches and graceful balconies where pedestrians could rest and look out on the panorama of city, mountains and river (the L.A. River had not yet been entombed in concrete).

"It was just stunning that the city would have built them," says California bridge historian Stephen D. Mikesell, who surveyed all of the historic bridges in the state during the mid-1980s. "In the number of beautiful bridges per square mile, I don't know where in the world you would find that many, and I was struck by how many people just didn't know about them, even in L.A."

It's understandable why Merrill Butler's bridges escape the notice of present-day Angelenos. Traffic over them nowadays is relatively light, the freeway system having absorbed the lion's share. In some instances, the bridges' decorative balusters and other ornamentation were stripped away or compromised (witness the modern "gooseneck" freeway lamps tied onto the crosshatched Art Deco concrete light standards of the 6th Street Bridge).

Moreover, the full glory of the bridges was meant to be seen not from above, but from below, at the level of the railroad tracks that once carried millions of people into and out of the city. It is a view to which very few people are now exposed.

The modern realities of Los Angeles have crowded the bridges toward obscurity. Massive DWP electrical towers hide the downriver view of the Spanish Colonial-style Cesar E. Chavez Bridge's ornate pylons, with their twisting Moorish columns. Auto-wrecking yards and a windowless warehouse nudge its flanks on the river's east bank.

The ground-level view of the gracefully curving 6th Street Bridge, at almost 3,500 feet, the longest and grandest of Butler's bridges, is disrupted by electrical towers, piles of rusting metal and industrial silos.

Butler and his engineers intended the beautiful Glendale-Hyperion Bridge to have green parkland pass beneath it along the river. Today eight lanes of the 5 Freeway are there instead.

An irony here: The bridges were built to speed the growth of Los Angeles, and that growth has all but overwhelmed them. When Butler and his team of engineers were delivering these gifts to the city, its population was but one-third its present size.


MERRILL BUTLER WAS BORN IN UPSTATE NEW YORK AND GRADUATED from the old Los Angeles Polytechnic High School downtown. He never went to college, but learned civil engineering via correspondence courses.

During his four decades with the Bureau of Engineering, he was responsible for designing numerous structures, including the river bridges, the Pasadena Freeway tunnels and the original Hyperion sewage treatment plant.

The day he turned 70 and was required to retire, he made a point of putting in a full workday. When the bridge builder died two years later, The Times neglected to run an obituary on him, though 700 people attended his funeral.

"My father was as modest a man as you'd ever meet," says Merrill Butler Jr., a retired Newport Beach developer and Butler's only child. "In his opinion, being a civil servant was a very noble profession. He was proud of working for the city and proud of the things the Bureau of Engineering did. His ethics were unassailable. I always wanted to be like my dad. People always told me, 'If you grow up to be half the man your father is . . . .' "


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