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ENRIQUE'S JOURNEY / CHAPTER THREE

Notes About Sources For Chapter Three

Enrique's Journey

October 02, 2002|Sonia Nazario

Crossing the Rio Suchiate: drawn from interviews with Enrique, other immigrants who made the crossing and Nazario's observations as she crossed on a raft. Facing Chiapas state, "the beast": from Father Flor Maria Rigoni, a Catholic priest at the Albergue Belen migrant shelter in Tapachula, Chiapas.

Lessons about Chiapas: from Enrique, other immigrants and Father Arturo Francisco Herrera Gonzalez, a Catholic priest who helps migrants at the Parroquia de San Vicente Ferrer in Juchitan, Oaxaca state.

Sleeping in the Tapachula cemetery, running for the train and a boy's near-mutilation: from interviews with Enrique and from Nazario's observations at the cemetery of the ritual of running for the train. Train speed: from Jorge Reinoso, chief of operations for the Ferrocarriles Chiapas-Mayab railroad, and from Julio Cesar Cancino Galvez, an officer of Grupo Beta Sur, the Mexican government migrant rights group, who is a former Tapachula train crewman. "The train ate him up": from Emilio Canteros Mendez, an engineer for Ferrocarriles Chiapas-Mayab, confirmed by immigrants Nazario met on the trains. Shouted warning to the boy in danger: from Enrique.

The dangers of Chiapas: from interview with Father Rigoni. A war with no name: from Rigoni. Lourdes' statement to Enrique that she loved and missed him: from Lourdes, confirmed by Enrique.

Locked inside a boxcar: from migrant Darwin Zepeda Lopez, 22, who survived such an incident.

How a train feels and choosing where to ride, what to carry: from Enrique and from Nazario's observations and interviews with migrants while riding on two freight trains through Chiapas. Reinoso provided information about the age and condition of tracks in Chiapas and the frequency of derailments, one of which Nazario witnessed. Train nicknames: from immigrants, Grupo Beta Sur officers and former crewman Julio Cesar Cancino Galvez.

Avoiding branches: from Enrique and from Nazario's observations on top of a train when an immigrant was knocked off. What immigrants yell when they see a branch: from Nazario's observations. Enrique confirmed that the same occurred on his journey. Information about the migrant whose eye was ripped out is from Matilda de la Rosa, the resident of Medias Aguas, Veracruz state, who came to his aid. The statement from the injured immigrant also is from De la Rosa. Dr. Ronald Smith, chairman of the ophthalmology department at USC, corroborates the plausibility of such an injury.

"Two-step" on train ladders: from Nazario's observations.

Enrique's anxiety near La Arrocera: from Enrique and from Nazario's observations of other immigrants on two train rides through the checkpoint. Exchange at La Arrocera between Enrique and immigration agents: from Enrique. Other train-riding immigrants told Nazario that agents yelled similar things to them. Demand by agent that Enrique stop running: from Enrique.

Agents shooting at immigrants: from C. Faustino Chacon Cruz Cabrera, a retired immigration agent; Hugo Angeles Cruz, an immigration expert at Colegio de la Frontera Sur in Tapachula, Mexico; railroad employees who said they had witnessed such shootings, including Jose Agustin Tamayo Chamorro, chief of operations at Ferrosur railroad, and Emilio Canteros Mendez, an engineer for Ferrocarriles Chiapas-Mayab; and immigrants who said agents had fired at them at La Arrocera, including Selvin Terraza Chan, 21, Jose Alberto Ruiz Mendez, 15, and Juan Joel de Jesus Villareal, 15. Hernan Bonilla, 27, showed Enrique and Nazario scars he said came from cigarette burns received from immigration agents in the area.

Madrinas: from Elba Flores Nunez, former coordinator of Centro de Derechos Humanos Tepeyac del Istmo de Tehuantepec, a rights group; Reyder Cruz Toledo, police chief in Arriaga, Chiapas; Jorge Zarif Zetuna Curioca, former mayor of Ixtepec, and now a member of Oaxaca's state assembly; Mario Campos Gutierrez, Grupo Beta Sur coordinator; retired immigration agent C. Faustino Chacon Cruz Cabrera; and La Arrocera resident Guillermina Galvez Lopez.

Dangers at La Arrocera: from Enrique, other migrants, Grupo Beta Sur officers and immigration agent Marco Tulio Carballo Cabrera at the nearby Hueyate immigration station. Migrants pleading for help when they suffered electric shock: from La Arrocera resident Guillermina Galvez Lopez. How migrants hide their money: from immigrants Nazario met riding on the trains. Enrique's run around La Arrocera: from Enrique, Clemente Delporte Gomez, a former Grupo Beta Sur officer, and Nazario's observations as she walked around the checkpoint, witnessed two bandit chases and entered the brick house where women had been raped. Words Enrique used to inspire himself to run fast: from Enrique.

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