DEATH VALLEY — The Europeans give, and the Europeans take away.
For years, French, Germans, Italians and a stream of continental compatriots flocked into the vast maw of this desert national park in the hottest months.
While American tourists steered clear in favor of more clement weather, tour buses and rental cars packed with European visitors streamed past the graceful sand dunes and inhospitable Badwater -- the Western Hemisphere's lowest point -- and into the parking lots of the park's resorts.
Europeans built a vibrant summer tourist industry in a place that seemed to epitomize their view of the extreme American West.
But today, a heavy chain and padlock hang from the doors of the Furnace Creek Inn. For the first time since the European tourist phenomenon compelled its owners to open for year-round business in 1997, the four-diamond resort is closed for the summer. Its massage rooms and ornate palm garden sit empty, its elegantly tiled, spring-fed swimming pool blankly mirroring the shimmering desert sky.
The blame lies with a poison cocktail of international travel jitters, sour economies and bitter feelings over the war in Iraq. The French, in particular, have canceled vacations in droves, tourists and hospitality industry experts say, fearing American hostility over their nation's rejection of the Iraqi invasion.
"We read it in the newspaper: You don't love us anymore. You say bad things about us," said Giselle Foucaut, who marveled at the valley's salt flats in 120-degree heat last week with her husband and granddaughter -- among the few French families visiting the park. Because of President Bush, she said, "and because of SARS in Canada
European and other international tourism is down across the country, denting national park attendance. But a spike in domestic car travel is making up the difference in many places where visitors don't risk heat stroke with a midday picnic or find their contact lenses seared to their eyeballs.
Here in Death Valley, Europeans compose 90% to 95% of summer hotel visitors, so the drop in numbers is keenly felt.
"When we started, Furnace Creek Inn used to be closed in the summer because no one in their right mind would go to Death Valley with temperatures between 120 and 130 degrees," said Michael Fitzpatrick, president of Los Angeles-based American Tours International, which books bus tours and driving itineraries for travelers from many countries. "But lo and behold, here came the Europeans."
Bus tours have dropped by more than 30% in the last two years, Fitzpatrick said.
A weak euro had already dented the frenzied visitor pace in the summer of 2001. Then came the Sept. 11 terrorist attacks. But last summer "was worse than we planned on or expected it to be," said Phil Dickinson, director of sales and marketing for the Furnace Creek Inn & Ranch Resort.
It was so dead in Death Valley that "you could roll a bowling ball down the middle of the visitor center," said a park ranger, Paul Schmitt.
Then came this year's war in Iraq and the scare over severe acute respiratory syndrome. Just as Americans have stuck close to home, so have Europeans, leaving travel arrangements for the last minute, if they make them at all.
"The unfortunate thing," Dickinson said, is that travel industry representatives in Europe "aren't able to give us a feel for whether it will get better."
Rather than pay the high costs of food service and housekeeping and power the full-tilt air-conditioning needed to make the 66-room inn habitable, Xanterra Parks & Resorts has consolidated operations at the nearby 224-room Furnace Creek Ranch.
The Spanish-style historic inn closed May 22, and will not reopen until Oct. 10. Instead, the summer months will be spent on special projects -- modernizing the kitchen of the 1927 inn and trimming the towering date palms imported from Morocco about 70 years ago.
Signs are that Europeans are returning to the desert this year in greater numbers than last. While bus traffic had dwindled to one every few days last summer, this year some days have seen 10 pour through on the way from Las Vegas to San Francisco, said Terry Baldino, the park's assistant chief of interpretation.
A late wildflower season and unusually lengthy spring have pushed visitor volume at the park 3% above this time last year. British tourists also seem to be coming in greater numbers. While temperatures have already topped 120 degrees, setting a record at the end of May, the peak summer season has not yet begun. And German travel seems to be picking up, Dickinson said.
But still, the landscape here is decidedly different with a smaller flock of European visitors. Just ask H. Vincent Fromm. As a development engineer for Ford Motor Co., Fromm has visited Death Valley 20 times and earned a place in its extreme summer subculture.
He is among the hordes of vehicle testers from all the major manufacturers who descend on the valley in summer to push car brakes, engines and other components on new models to their limits.