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A highly inflated version of reality

Researchers challenge notions about what drives the chronic liar.

March 03, 2003|Benedict Carey | Times Staff Writer

The world's con artists and hustlers and philanderers have to lie -- it's how they get by. But the real masters of lying don't need a clear reason. They spin war stories for neighbors, travel adventures for co-workers, romantic fictions for friends.

That's why many psychiatrists consider chronic lying as almost always a symptom of a deeper emotional problem, such as delusional thinking, psychopathy or narcissism.

Yet the most provocative new research suggests that people lie chronically for a wide variety of reasons, some serious, others relatively benign. In a recent article reviewing 100 years of literature on the subject, as well as several cases in the news, doctors at Yale University find that some chronic liars are capable, successful, even disciplined people who embellish their life stories needlessly. They don't suffer from an established mental illness, as many habitual fabricators do. They're just, well, liars.

"Many of us have known these kinds of people; it's like they wake up in the morning and have to tell the most preposterous stories for no apparent reason," said Dr. Charles Dike, a coauthor of the article with Yale psychiatrists Dr. Ezra Griffith and Madelon Baranoski. Their findings were presented at a recent conference of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, a forensic psychiatry group.

Viewed as otherwise normal men and women who have a kind of compulsion, these chronic liars become more sympathetic figures, neither as manipulative nor malicious as they seem, and perhaps more predictable. "In these cases where there is no underlying mental problem," Dike said, "we then can ask: What about the individual's life is causing this abnormal pattern of deception?"

Psychologists have long known that some deception is a normal, healthy part of human behavior, often starting in children about the age of 5 or 6. In adulthood, most people lie routinely, if usually harmlessly, to get through the day. In one ongoing experiment, Robert Feldman, a psychologist at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst, has had people carry hidden video cameras and record their conversations over a couple of days. Watching the tapes later, the men and women tally their own deceptions. The average fib rate: three for every 10 minutes of conversation. "One woman heard herself on the telephone, sympathizing with her boyfriend, who was sick," Feldman said. "At the time of the conversation, she told us, all she was thinking was, 'What a big baby.' "

The variety of these social "white lies" reflects their many familiar purposes: to avoid hurting others' feelings; to cover our own embarrassments; to reassure the needlessly anxious; to spare unnecessary headaches. But the lying can become less appropriate when used as an all-purpose coping strategy.

Dr. Charles Ford, a psychiatrist at the University of Alabama in Birmingham, said that in his own practice he sees college students from affluent backgrounds who are struggling in school. Some begin lying to cover up failure. "These are young men and women who maybe got into school as a legacy, not on ability, or who have a learning disability," he said. "The expectations are very high, and they can't cut it." At exam time, the stories fly: One woman had an imaginary boyfriend, an international news correspondent, who would fly in to visit from overseas; another had a series of emergency funerals to attend. "The problem is, you can only have so many dead grandmothers," Ford said.

People struggling through highly demanding jobs or family responsibilities may engage in the same kind of fabrication to buy themselves breathing room, psychologists report. The coping strategy is protective, and the lies usually have some basis in truth. But when the deception builds on itself, mental-health experts say, it is cause for concern, as evidence of a mental disorder, or at least a profound sense of inadequacy that could respond to therapy.

Certainly a behavior common to nearly all chronic liars is that they change their stories when caught. "One person who I went to college with would make up fantastic stories, saying he was going off to Europe, for example," said Dike. "Then you would see him later that evening. He'd say, 'Oh, the trip was canceled at the last minute.' There was always an explanation."

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