As an alternative, critics have suggested shifting to an overdose of a single sedative. Dr. Mark Dershwitz, a professor of anesthesiology at the University of Massachusetts Medical Center, who has testified on behalf of several states defending their lethal injection procedures, told Human Rights Watch that if a large dose of pentobarbital were used it certainly would kill an inmate but that it might take "more than half an hour. Everyone involved will have to wait a very long time for the heart to stop."
Dershwitz said no state official had decided to switch, even after hearing that pentobarbital would be less painful. Asked why, the report's coauthors Jamie Fellner and Sarah Tofte quoted Dershwitz as follows: "It's not about the prisoner. It's about public policy. It's about the audience [at the execution] and prison personnel who have to carry out the execution. It would be hard for everybody to have to sit and wait for the EKG activity to cease so they can declare the prisoner dead."
U.S. District Judge Jeremy Fogel will conduct a two-day hearing on California's procedure beginning May 2. In late February, California officials delayed Michael A. Morales' execution after saying that they could not get a licensed medical professional to inject the lethal chemicals as Fogel had ordered. Morales is on death row for the 1981 murder of a Lodi high school student.
No court has found lethal injection unconstitutional. The U.S. Supreme Court has permitted some delays, but allowed other lethal injection executions to go forward, including that of Willie Brown Jr. in North Carolina on Friday.
A federal judge initially blocked Brown's execution for the 1983 slaying of a convenience store clerk. But he relented after prison officials agreed to use a bispectral index monitor, a device the state said could monitor Brown's level of consciousness.
Defense anesthesiology experts warned that the machine was useless in the absence of trained professionals who could intervene if Brown awoke, but the judge disagreed.
Dr. Mark Heath, an assistant professor of clinical anesthesiology at Columbia University in New York, said in a declaration submitted in the Morales case that California's "selection of potassium chloride to cause cardiac arrest needlessly increases the risk that a prisoner will experience excruciating pain prior to execution."
Last October, the American Society of Anesthesiologists issued an advisory warning that the risk of experiencing awareness during surgery increases when the patient has a history of substance abuse and when the anesthesia is administered intravenously, an action noted in the Human Rights Watch report.
Anesthesia is administered intravenously during executions, and many condemned inmates have histories of drug use. Surgery patients who received neuromuscular blocking agents with inadequate anesthesia have told of extreme suffering while being unable to alert the anesthesiologist, according to court testimony in a lethal injection case in Louisiana.
In a brief submitted to the U.S. Supreme Court last week, Tennessee physicians wrote that "achieving and maintaining an appropriate anesthetic depth is an extraordinarily complex endeavor that requires specialized training, procedures and equipment."
Physicians already are involved in executions, but mostly on the periphery. In California, a physician must fit a heart monitor on the condemned prisoner and check its readings, according to Human Rights Watch. Twenty-eight states require a physician to determine or pronounce death during an execution, the report said.
Attorneys for the state have steadfastly maintained that the amount of the sedative sodium thiopental administered by death row personnel at San Quentin State Prison will quickly render an inmate unconscious and that the inmate will remain in that condition while the other drugs are delivered.
Since Morales' execution was stayed in late February, California has changed its protocol slightly. Attorneys for the state maintain that they are acting well within the bounds of the law.
But Heath said the state's procedures don't even meet guidelines set by the American Veterinary Medical Assn. for the euthanasia of animals.
At least 30 states ban the use of paralytics in animal euthanasia, and the veterinary association says using a neuromuscular blocking drug with an anesthetic is unacceptable for animals.
"They are using '70s technology for animals 35 years later in people, and the vets have moved away from those protocols," Koniaris said.
Dr. Willie Reed, one of the authors of a veterinary association study on euthanasia, said Michigan State University's veterinary clinic euthanizes animals with pentobarbital, a long-lasting sedative. The dosage is adjusted for the weight of the animal.
Doctors say the drug would probably work just as effectively in humans, but medical ethics prevent them from proposing a means of execution, even if it is more humane than the process currently used.
Contrary to the position taken by Dershwitz, the anesthesiology professor, some physicians and veterinarians say pentobarbital's effects are rapid.
"The animal dies almost instantaneously, within a few seconds of the injection, probably less than a minute," said Reed, director of a veterinary research center at the university. "It is used on cattle every week."