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Precious stone

Getty exhibit reveals Bernini's genius for breathing dynamic life into solid rock.

August 05, 2008|Christopher Knight | Times Art Critic

Nothing would seem more dull than an exhibition of portrait busts, those stone-faced dust-catchers representing obscure generals, long-dead clergymen, government functionaries and preening aristocrats that one sometimes encounters tucked away in museum hallways or lobbies but rarely in prominent galleries for painting and sculpture. Typically, the sitter's wearisome vanity outdistances the artist's skill with a chisel and a drill.

But then there is Bernini -- Gian Lorenzo Bernini (1598-1680), the brilliant and prolific sculptor, architect and painter who more or less invented Italian Baroque art. Along the way he also transformed the dreary portrait bust, a tradition largely inert since ancient Rome.

He made it into something dynamic and, on occasion, even spellbinding. Opening today at the J. Paul Getty Museum, "Bernini and the Birth of Baroque Portrait Sculpture" traces that improbable phenomenon with style and intelligence.

There has never been a major Bernini sculpture show in the United States. His astounding life-size marble figures and narrative works, such as "David" and "Apollo and Daphne" are unlikely ever to be moved from their Roman museums. Others, such as the spiritually delirious and frankly erotic "Ecstasy of St. Theresa" or the Piazza Navona's "Fountain of the Four Rivers," obviously can't be moved, since they are parts of permanent architectural ensembles. That leaves the portrait busts.

In 2000 the Getty acquired a flashy Baroque bust of a young noblewoman that is now attributed to Giuliano Finelli, a Bernini studio assistant and later rival. The acquisition evolved into an exhibition idea.

But the show was almost derailed by the volatile looted antiquities dispute between the Getty and the Italian government, which in 2007 threatened to forbid loans to the Los Angeles museum if certain works were not returned. At least eight of the show's 20 Bernini sculptures come from Italian public and private collections, including the three most critically important portrait busts. Last summer's resolution of the antiquities brawl allowed the exhibition to proceed.

Bernini was a child prodigy, completing his first commission at 10. (A small marble figure of a chubby infant Hercules slaying a dragon, which Bernini began at the ripe old age of 16, is in the Getty's permanent collection galleries.) At 24 he began work on “Apollo and Daphne,” a tour-de-force depiction of a life-size nymph escaping rape by a lustful god through her miraculous metamorphosis into a laurel tree. The transformation is uncannily embodied in marble, and the sculpture was instantly the talk of Rome. So extraordinary was Bernini's achievement that he was dubbed "the new Michelangelo."

The sculpture relates a story from Ovid's "Metamorphosis." The myth is ancient, but the narrative is important to the revolution Bernini soon made in the traditional genre of the portrait bust. "Apollo and Daphne" records a vivacious being who is transformed into a static tree -- a living object that's incapable of voluntary movement. That's also a pretty good description of Bernini's goal for a person's portrait carved in stone.

How did he do it? Bernini's earliest work suggests two avenues, both of which unfold in the show's first room.

A small self-portrait painting Bernini made when he was about 25 is a gripping depiction of artistic intensity. Shown in three-fourths view, the bust-length head is set against a plain brown background that doesn't detract attention from the face. Jaw set, eyes wide, bearing almost wary, Bernini stares hard -- directly at a viewer, who meets his concentrated gaze. Automatically you pull in close to scrutinize the startling canvas.

When you do, it takes just a moment to realize that what Bernini was actually staring at was his own reflection in a mirror, a practice essential to painting a self-portrait. The visual dialogue between artist and sitter is replicated in the one that is now unfolding between work of art and viewer.

Nearby are four marble and two bronze busts, all made in the 1620s before the artist was commissioned by Pope Urban VIII to work on St. Peter's. What began as a design for a huge baldacchino -- a 98-foot-high bronze pavilion over the central altar -- evolved into a 50-year series of projects, including the Baroque colonnade and piazza out front.

The pope's voraciousness didn't leave much time for portraits, except those commemorating him and his family. But a slightly earlier 1622 marble of Antonio Cepparelli, a wealthy Florentine living in Rome, has long been regarded as a turning point in the history of sculpted portraits. Bernini made it the same year he began work on "Apollo and Daphne." In addition to its psychological representation of a world weary older man, the portrait brilliantly suggests a body whose weight is subtly shifting in space.

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