In reporting on the value-added approach, The Times interviewed a dozen leading experts and reviewed more than two dozen research and policy papers from proponents and skeptics.
The following is a list of some of the papers reviewed by The Times:
Primers and Policy Briefs:
"Increasing the odds: How good policies can yield better teachers." National Council on Teacher Quality. 2004.
"Policymakers' guide to growth models for school accountability: How do accountability models differ?." Pete Goldschmidt, Pat Roschewski, Kilchan Choi, William Auty, Steve Hebbler, Rolf Blank and Andra Williams (Council of Chief State School Officers). 2005.
"Practical considerations for using value added models for monitoring teacher effectiveness." Pete Goldschmidt. Value Added Modeling Meeting, Sacramento, Calif. 2008.
"Using student progress to evaluate teachers: A primer on value-added models." Henry I. Braun (Educational Testing Services). 2005.
"Teacher education: Coming up empty." Kate Walsh (National Center on Teacher Quality). 2006.
"The widget effect: Our national failure to acknowledge and act on differences in teacher effectiveness." Daniel Weisberg (The New Teacher Project). 2009.
"Estimating teacher impacts on student achievement: An experimental evaluation." Thomas Kane ( Harvard University) and Douglas Staiger (Dartmouth College). 2008.
"Identifying effective teachers using performance on the job." Robert Gordon (Center for American Progress), Thomas J. Kane (Harvard Graduate School of Education) and Douglas O. Staiger (Dartmouth College). Brookings. 2006.
"What does certification tell us about teacher effectiveness? Evidence from New York City." Thomas Kane, J.E. Rockoff and D.O. Staiger (Harvard). 2006.
"Teacher quality in educational production: Tracking, decay and student achievement." Jesse Rothstein ( Princeton University). 2009.
"Does student sorting invalidate value-added models of teacher effectiveness? An extended analysis of the Rothstein critique." Cory Koedel (University of Missouri) and Julian Betts ( UC San Diego). 2009.
"A study on the impact of Teach for America teachers in the Los Angeles Unified School District." Vazha Nadareishvili (RAND). For the Broad Foundation. 2008. (Unpublished)
"Teacher preparation and student achievement." Donal Boyd, Pamela Grossman, Hamilton Lankford, Susanna Loeb and James Wyckooff (Calder Center). 2008.
"Teacher credentials and student achievement in high school: A cross-subject analysis with student fixed effects." Charles T. Clotfelter, Helen F. Ladd and Jacob L. Vigdor (Calder Center). 2007.
"Evaluating value-added models for teacher accountability." D.F. McCaffrey, J.R. Lockwood, D.L. Koretz and L.S. Hamilton (RAND). 2003.
"Teacher Deselection." Eric A. Hanushek ( Stanford University). Forthcoming.
"Teachers, schools, and academic achievement." S.G. Rivkin, E.A. Hanushek and J.F. Kain. National Bureau of Economic Research working paper. 2000.
"Harming the best: How schools affect the black-white achievement gap." E.A. Hanushek and Steven G. Rivkin. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management. 2009.
"Teacher Quality." Eric A. Hanushek and Steven G. Rivkin. Handbook of the Economics of Education.
"Evidence, politics, and the class size debate." Eric A. Hanushek in The Class-Size Debate. Economic Policy Institute. 2002.
"Does teacher certification matter? High school teacher certification status and student achievement." D. Goldhaber and D. Brewer. Educational evaluation and policy analysis. 2000.
"Is it just a bad class? Assessing the stability of measured teacher performance." Dan Goldhaber and Michael Hansen. Center for Reinventing Public Education working paper. 2008.
"Assessing the potential of using value-added estimates of teacher job performance for making tenure decisions." Dan Goldhaber, Michael Hansen. Center for Reinventing Public Education research brief. 2008.
"Controlling for student background in value-added assessment of teachers." Dale Ballou (Vanderbilt University), William Sanders and Paul Wright (SAS Institute). Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics. 2004.
"Teacher and classroom context effects on student achievement: Implications for teacher evaluation." Paul Wright, Sandra P. Horn and William L. Sanders (University of Tennessee, Value-Added Research and Assessment Center). 1997.
"Teacher effects and teacher effectiveness: A validity investigation of TVAAS (Tennessee Value-Added Assessment System)." H. Kupermintz. Educational evaluation and policy analysis. 2003.
"The sensitivity of value-added teacher effect estimates to different mathematics achievement measures." J. R. Lockwood, Daniel F. McCaffrey, Laura S. Hamilton, Brian Stecher, Vi-Nhuan Le and José Felipe Martinez (RAND). 2007.
"Letter report to the U.S. Department of Education on the Race to the Top fund." National Research Council, Board on Testing and Assessment. 2009.
"The value-added achievement gains of NBPTS-certified teachers in Tennessee." J.E. Stone. 2002.
"Estimating teacher productivity using a multivariate multilevel model for value-added analysis." Yeow Meng Thum ( UCLA). 2003.
"Teacher quality, teacher licensure tests and student achievement." Richard Buddin and Gema Zamarro (RAND). 2008.
"Teacher qualifications and middle school achievement." Richard Buddin and Gema Zamarro (RAND). 2009.
"Teacher effects on longitudinal students achievement." Heather Jordan, Robert Mendro and Dash Meerasinghe. 1997.
"A potential outcomes view of value-added assessment in education." Donald B. Rubin, Elizabeth A. Stuart and Elaine L. Zanutto (American Educational Research Assn.) 2004.
"Teacher credentials and student achievement: Longitudinal analysis with student fixed effects." Helen Ladd ( Duke University). Economics of Education Review. 2007.
"Teacher certification reconsidered: Stumbling for quality." Kate Walsh (The Abell Foundation). 2001.