Reporting from Los Angeles and Washington — Congressional investigators opening hearings this week on Toyota's sudden-acceleration troubles say they will focus on discrepancies in the automaker's explanation of the problem, the role of regulators who oversee the industry -- and ultimately whether federal safety standards are grossly outdated, given the advanced electronics technology at the heart of modern car-making.
Two House committee hearings, on Wednesday and on Feb. 25, will take place amid the high political pressures that shape Washington investigations. Toyota Motor Corp. has major operations in nine states, and says its company and dealership facilities employ 172,000 people -- constituents of more than three dozen House and Senate members.
Toyota says that floor mats and sticking gas pedals are the only causes of sudden unintended acceleration in its vehicles, a problem that has been the subject of more than 2,000 consumer complaints to federal safety regulators.
Investigators and congressional staffers say that, based on a preliminary review of internal company and government documents, Toyota has not adequately addressed suspicions that the problem may lie in defects in the engine's electronic control systems.
The House Energy and Commerce Committee, meeting at month's end, will "examine whether Toyota's public statements about the causes of sudden acceleration explain the problems that have been plaguing consumers," said Rep. Henry A. Waxman (D-Beverly Hills), the committee chairman.
He said his committee would also examine the role of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. The agency has conducted eight investigations of sudden acceleration in Toyota cars and trucks since 2003, The Times reported late last year, but the problem has persisted, leading to recalls that now cover 9 million vehicles worldwide.
At issue, Waxman said, is "when the company and NHTSA first learned of the problems and whether they responded appropriately."
In the months ahead, Congress will also begin to consider whether safety standards that set minimum legal requirements for the design and testing of cars and trucks have failed to address the advanced technology used in modern engine control systems.
Current federal standards were largely drafted in the 1960s and '70s, long before electronic systems began to take over the critical functions of engines. Many automakers now use electronic throttle-control systems that connect a driver's foot to the engine with sensors, computers and wires instead of mechanical links, yet the federal standard on throttles is applicable only to traditional pedals.
"The Toyota investigation is going to go down in history as one of the major probes of all times in auto safety, not because of the number of deaths, which are high enough, but because it captures the public attention," said Clarence Ditlow, executive director of the Center for Auto Safety, who has monitored almost every major automobile safety investigation in Washington for more than two decades. "You can't have vehicles that take off on their own."
The first congressional hearings are set to kick off Wednesday, when Toyota Motor North America President Yoshimi Inaba, Transportation Secretary Ray LaHood and NHTSA Chief David Strickland are called to appear before the House Oversight and Government Reform Committee, chaired by Rep. Edolphus Towns (D-N.Y.).
The Towns committee is closely examining the credibility of Toyota's assertions that floor mats can trap gas pedals in seven of its models. Toyota has not yet been able to demonstrate that its models became more vulnerable to entrapment over the last decade, based on changing designs that reduced the gap between the gas pedals and the floor, according to committee staffers who were not authorized to speak publicly.
In 2007, Toyota conducted a recall on its Camry and Lexus ES models, saying floor mats could trap the accelerator pedals. In 2009, it did a second recall affecting seven models, citing the same issue with floor mats.
The committee will seek to determine when Toyota engineers first learned that the distance between the mats and the pedals was too narrow -- and why they did not act sooner to correct a problem that they may have been aware of since at least 2007.
"They have to show a design change that triggered the problem -- that's the burden Toyota has," one staffer said. "This boils down to a gap issue."
Toyota said Saturday that it had expanded its efforts to respond to the crisis. The company has hired consultants Glover Park Group, which includes senior Clinton administration officials, to assist in the matter.
The examination of the automaker's sudden-acceleration problem will take place in a charged political atmosphere, given the potent grass-roots power that comes with thousands of Toyota jobs spread across the nation.