Michael Butcher has applied for at least 25 jobs since injuries he suffered in Iraq forced him to leave the Army three years ago.
"I was even turned down by McDonald's," said the 29-year-old San Diego native.
The military is known for developing leadership, adaptability, loyalty and teamwork. But Butcher said when he tells employers he needs time off to see therapists for post-traumatic stress disorder and a brain injury, they don't call back.
"They think you are mental," he said.
After nearly a decade of war, many U.S. military veterans have lived through extended periods of combat stress and the trauma of losing colleagues. Nearly a third of the troops returning from Iraq and Afghanistan report symptoms of PTSD, severe depression or traumatic brain injury, according to a 2008 study by the Rand Corp.
Many of these new veterans struggle to find and retain civilian jobs. Not only are they returning to the worst economy in decades, advocates say, but many employers do not know how to accommodate these invisible wounds and worry that they might "go postal."
"If you are a person with a lost limb, it's a little more straightforward what you might need," said John Wilson, assistant legislative director for Disabled American Veterans. "You might need a different kind of keyboard or voice-recognition software to do the typing."
But employers may not know what to expect from a person with PTSD or a brain injury. The symptoms can include severe headaches, memory lapses, poor concentration, slurred speech, loss of balance, a short temper and anxiety in a crowd.
"These elements can make it a challenge to do everyday activities in the workplace," said Raymond Jefferson, assistant secretary for the Veterans' Employment and Training Service in the U.S. Department of Labor. "But there are very reasonable accommodations employers can make to allow wounded warriors with PTSD and [brain injuries] to be high-contributing, high-performing members on the team."
When the Society for Human Resource Management surveyed its members in June, 46% said they believed post-traumatic stress and other mental health issues posed a hiring challenge. Just 22% said the same about combat-related physical disabilities.
Although media attention has helped make the diagnosis and treatment of PTSD and traumatic brain injury a government priority, veterans say it has also contributed to the stigma associated with these wounds.
"They hear so many stories on the news — this soldier got back from Iraq and killed his wife — which makes people a little reluctant to hire you," Butcher said.
Butcher deployed to Iraq in 2003 as part of a tank crew that repeatedly came under fire. One hot day he left a hatch open and the force of a grenade blast slammed his head against an iron shield.
Many veterans are using education benefits to improve their qualifications. But when Butcher enrolled in community college, the sight of Muslim students kneeling to pray triggered terrifying flashbacks. He left after one semester.
A friend helped arrange an internship at a computer manufacturing company, but Butcher said he got into frequent arguments with co-workers. After four days, he was asked to leave.
Butcher said he has since learned to walk away when he gets angry and uses weekly counseling sessions to relieve stress. But he said the flexibility he would need from an employer puts him at a disadvantage compared to job seekers who don't have special needs.
Officials with the U.S. departments of Veterans Affairs, Labor and Defense have worked to assure potential employers that the mental and cognitive disabilities of many veterans can be accommodated with little expense and minimum disruption.
Short rest periods — no longer than a smoking break — can make a big difference, said Ruth Fanning, who heads the VA's Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Service. The department also pays for adaptive technology, such as electronic organizers to help keep track of appointments and white-noise machines to reduce distractions.
Denita Hartfield, a veteran now working from home, takes a digital recorder into every meeting, writes lists in color-coded notebooks and covers her workspace with Post-it note reminders. A striking woman, fashionably attired, with a master's degree in criminal justice and weapons of mass destruction, Hartfield struggled as dean of students at a business school because her disabilities were not immediately apparent.
"I'd get ridiculed every time I had to go to a medical appointment," she said. "I'm not what people think a disabled veteran should look like."
Hartfield's 17-year Army career was cut short by a 2005 ambush in Iraq. She spent the next two years in and out of the hospital to repair three crushed ribs and drain fluid from around her heart. She is now home in Bakersfield, but commutes several times a week to medical centers in Sepulveda and West Los Angeles to treat a brain injury and PTSD.