Critics say the Chinese government has done little to stem the flow of pirated… (Ricardo DeAratanha / Los…)
Poking around a pirate DVD shop down the block from the Apple Store in central Beijing one recent afternoon on her lunch break, Zhou Xin eyed the floor-to-ceiling selection of Oscar-nominated films, indie flicks and B-movies such as "Nude Nuns With Big Guns" before grabbing a sleek copy of "Black Swan," complete with a blurb in English and Mandarin, for closer inspection.
"It looks creepy," said the 26-year-old, who works in public relations. She replaced it on the shelf and picked up "The Social Network," which she purchased for eight yuan, or about $1.22.
Asked if she had ever bought a legal foreign DVD, she replied: "Never. And even if I wanted to, there's nowhere to go. Legal DVDs are like democracy -- they don't exist in China."
Thanks to globalization, rising incomes and the spread of the Internet, Chinese consumers such as Zhou have an interest in Hollywood movies like never before -- "Avatar," for instance, grossed more money in China than any other country besides the United States. But their options for legal viewing of foreign films remain scant.
China allows only about 20 foreign movies into theaters each year, and has strict licensing rules for the sale of home entertainment products. Censors must approve of all films for legal viewing and would certainly frown upon fare such as "Black Swan," with its explicit sex scenes, and "The Social Network," which is about Facebook -- a service that the Chinese government blocks.
With no outlets akin to Netflix, Blockbuster or iTunes legitimately selling or renting a broad selection of titles, Chinese movie buffs opt for illegal Internet downloads or pirated DVDs. More and more piracy has migrated to the Web in China, though reliable estimates of its magnitude are hard to find. Still, bootleg DVDs -- slickly produced and packaged, some with "extras" even better than those found on legitimate discs -- remain a huge business and give an indication of the scale of the problem: According to a report in state-run media, the country's pirate DVD industry raked in $6 billion in 2010. By comparison, China's box-office receipts totaled $1.5 billion last year.
Authorities say they are taking robust action to thwart copyright infringement of items such as films, music and clothing and claim a crackdown has netted 3,000 people since October. But the fundamental problem, Hollywood studios and many Chinese consumers agree, is that China's censorship policies and restrictions on home entertainment products make it nearly impossible for consumers here to buy legal copies of American films. The Motion Picture Assn. of America has estimated that nine out of 10 DVDs sold in China are bootlegged, and piracy rates for downloaded films are almost certainly as high or higher.
"We will not make serious inroads on piracy in China until we can get into that market and offer a legitimate and legal alternative," said Greg Frazier, chief policy officer of the MPAA. The trade group, which represents the six major Hollywood studios, is hopeful that a pending World Trade Organization dispute will force China to liberalize not only the theatrical distribution of movies but also the import and sale of home entertainment products and the licensing process retailers must go through. China is expected to respond sometime this month.
Hollywood studios have started experimenting with licensing deals with Chinese video portals after major ones such as Youku and Tudou lost lawsuits and began removing copyrighted content from their sites. Youku recently licensed the Warner Bros. film "Inception," which users can pay five yuan, about 75 cents, to watch. Tudou is to start streaming TV programs including "Desperate Housewives" and "Lost" in a deal with Disney Media Distribution. But shadowy new sites continue to pop up, and pirated DVDs are easily bought online.
Chinese consumers are so used to bootlegs that particular pirate "brands" with names like Red Dragon, Monkey King and Pegasus have loyal followings. Some of the more established pirate brands are experimenting with watermarks of their own, in an effort to distinguish their products from those made by smaller bootleg outfits. The high-end pirates don't deal in copies of movies recorded in theaters with shaky hand-held cameras; rather, they make bootleg copies of authentic DVDs, known as D9s, that often offer more features than an authorized DVD of the same movie sold in an American Wal-Mart. Some brands put together exquisitely packaged box sets or collectors' editions.
These sophisticated pirate operations draw on multiple sources. They'll take video features from North American discs and combine those with the most accurate Chinese subtitles from Taiwan and Hong Kong discs. For instance, a pirated DVD version of "The Shawshank Redemption" includes an MP3 file of the entire soundtrack.