The violence took place amid a political standoff between factions representing the Shiite majority, which dominates the government, and the Sunni minority that ruled under the late Saddam Hussein.
Last month, an arrest warrant was issued for the country's Sunni vice president, Tariq Hashimi, on accusations that he ran a death squad that targeted government officials. Hashimi says the charges are politically motivated. He has retreated to Iraq's semiautonomous Kurdish region, where he is beyond the reach of the Baghdad security forces.
Maliki, a Shiite, has also called for a vote of no confidence in his Sunni deputy, Saleh Mutlak, who had likened him to a dictator.
Iraqiya, the political bloc to which Hashimi and Mutlak belong, has been boycotting parliament and Cabinet sessions to protest what it describes as Shiite attempts to consolidate power and marginalize Sunnis. But seven members broke ranks to attend parliament Thursday, saying they respect their oath of office and their voters.
In a bid to defuse tensions, Maliki met Thursday evening with parliament Speaker Usama Nujaifi, a Sunni. Both leaders condemned the bombings. They described the meeting as positive and said they had hopes of finding a political solution.
Special correspondent Salman reported from Baghdad and Times staff writer Zavis from Beirut.