Protesters in Sanford, Fla., have demanded that police arrest a neighborhood… (Mario Tama, Getty Images )
Reporting from Sanford, Fla., and Los Angeles —
It has been called "obscene," "stupid" and the "right-to-commit-murder law."
It has also been credited with protecting people like Sarah McKinley, a young widow who killed a knife-wielding man after he broke into her Oklahoma home.
Opinions about so-called "stand your ground" legislation — at the center of the Trayvon Martin killing in Sanford, Fla. — are as vastly different as the cases in which it has been invoked since Florida in 2005 became the first state to adopt such a statute. But now, even defenders of "stand your ground" laws say they may need tweaking to clarify the stew of interpretations that critics say are letting people like George Zimmerman, who shot the unarmed 17-year-old, get away with murder.
Randy Jones, a Sanford city commissioner who calls himself "a firm believer" in 2nd Amendment rights, said that if the statute was creating the sort of confusion — and public rage — that has resulted from the Martin slaying, "it would be imperative for the Legislature not necessarily to repeal the law, but maybe to refine it."
"I really think, at some point, we're all going to realize that what we have, what we're dealing with, and what our police chief is dealing with is a bad law," said fellow Commissioner Patty Mahany, who joined Jones last week in defending Sanford's police chief, Bill Lee Jr., against a no-confidence motion. Lee went on paid leave Thursday after the motion passed 3 to 2 amid anger over his department's decision not to arrest Zimmerman for shooting Martin, who was black and whose death has sparked allegations of institutional racism.
Lee has said Zimmerman appeared to be protected by the "stand your ground" law, which permits someone to "stand his or her ground and meet force with force, including deadly force," if the person fears death or great bodily harm. The law removes the duty to retreat in the face of a perceived threat, and it allows the use of force virtually anywhere — a home, an ice-cream shop, a public sidewalk or a jogging trail.
Since 2005, similar or identical laws have been adopted in at least 20 other states, according to the Brady Campaign to Prevent Gun Violence. Other states have laws based on "stand your ground" but with more limitations on where it can be applied. Most have followed Florida's lead in removing the duty of a person to retreat to prevent an altercation.
In some cases, the law's value is not in dispute, as when McKinley, at home alone with her baby, shot a man dead after he broke down the door of her Blanchard, Okla., home last New Year's Eve. McKinley was guaranteed immunity against criminal charges and civil suits under that state's law.
"This is probably one of the best pieces of legislation our legislators have put into place because it enables people to defend themselves and their home," said Brandon Clabes, the police chief of Midwest City, Okla., a town of about 56,000, where three killings have been ruled justifiable under the state's law in the last year and a half.
Few dispute the right of people to defend themselves inside their homes. The problem comes when both parties have a right to be where an assault has occurred, as in the Martin case, said Jacksonville, Fla., defense attorney Eric Friday, who lobbied for "stand your ground." "You fall back on who was the aggressor," he said.
That forces prosecutors "to prove the person is not reasonable" when someone opens fire, said Sam Hoover, an attorney at the Legal Community Against Violence in San Francisco, which opposes the laws. "It makes it hard in cases, including the Trayvon Martin case, to arrest the individual who killed him."
The situation is exacerbated when there are no eyewitnesses, as on the rainy night of Feb. 26 when Martin walked to the home of a family friend who lived in the same gated community as Zimmerman. The teenager carried some candy, a drink and his cellphone; Zimmerman carried a 9-millimeter pistol, for which he had a permit. In his call to a 911 operator, Zimmerman described the teenager as looking "suspicious" and continued to trail him, even after the operator advised him not to.
The fact that Trayvon was black and Zimmerman is not — the police report describes him as white, and his father says he is Latino — has added to the public anger and sparked a national debate over racial stereotyping and whether "stand your ground" laws put young blacks at particular risk. President Obama entered the conversation Friday, saying if he had a son, "he'd look like Trayvon."
Willie Thomas, a black Sanford resident, said his own son, 21-year-old Willie Thomas Jr., began a 10-year prison sentence last year for shooting another man in an altercation. According to Thomas, the man, who survived, had a long-term rivalry with his son and had been ordered by a court to stay away from the family.