In their critique of Iran sanctions, Najmedin Meshkati and Guive Mirfendereski argue that Libya demonstrates that penalties do not alter behavior. History tells another story.
By the early 1990s, sanctions by the United Nations Security Council and from elsewhere froze Libya's global financial assets while cutting access to arms, oil equipment, aircraft maintenance, air travel and diplomatic relations. As the country's increasing isolation hit the economy and generated unrest, government pragmatists called for an end of the country's anti-West agenda. Moammar Kadafi relented.
The result contributed to Libya's decision in 2003 to end its nuclear weapons program. In 2006 the United States reopened the Tripoli embassy.