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Antibiotic Resistance

SCIENCE
December 10, 2012 | By Eryn Brown
Scientists said Sunday that the Clostridium difficile epidemic from 2002 to 2006 - an outbreak of gastrointestinal illness that spanned hospitals across the globe - was caused by two closely-related strains of the bacterium and not one, as had been previously believed. Trevor Lawley of the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute in Hinxton, England and coauthors from other institutions sequenced the genomes of C. difficile samples collected between 1985 and 2010, mainly from hospital patients.  Analyzing the samples, they found the two lineages of the bacterium,which they named FQR1 and FQR2.
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NEWS
November 14, 2012 | By Jon Bardin
For most people who contract Lyme disease - a bacterial infection borne by ticks - a course of antibiotics does the trick. But for some, especially those who live in areas like the Northeast U.S., where Lyme disease is particularly common, the infection comes back. That raises questions about whether the disease is recurring - a single infection leading to multiple bouts with symptoms - or if reinfection is occurring, meaning the patient is unlucky enough to have been bit again. Now a new study, published Wednesday in the New England Journal of Medicine , appears to lay the question to rest: Such patients are reinfected, and Lyme disease does not appear to recur after successful courses of antibiotics.
BUSINESS
June 20, 2003 | From Associated Press
McDonald's Corp. said Thursday that it was directing its meat suppliers worldwide to phase out the routine use of growth-promoting antibiotics in animals because of concerns that the practice lessens the drugs' effectiveness in humans. McDonald's is the first major fast-food chain to take such a step. The decision by the world's biggest restaurant company came after a year of consultations with environmental, science and consumer groups that had pushed for cutbacks.
NEWS
April 27, 2000 | From the Washington Post
Researchers have concluded that a Nebraska boy's infection by salmonella bacteria resistant to a widely used pediatric antibiotic came from cattle on his farm. The report has heightened concerns of public health officials that the routine use of antibiotics by farmers to treat and promote the growth of livestock is reducing the ability of similar antibiotics to cure humans of infections.
NEWS
August 16, 1987 | ROB STEIN, United Press International
Bacteria, which cause a wide variety of diseases in humans ranging from diarrhea to pneumonia, appear to be developing resistance to medicine's arsenal of antibiotic drugs at an alarming rate around the world. More types of bacteria are becoming resistant to antibiotics, and organisms already resistant to one drug are developing resistance to new drugs, according to a new government-sponsored study. "You have to say it's serious," said Dr. Stuart B.
NEWS
December 13, 1991 | From Times Wire Services
In a recent study, researchers in Seattle found antibiotics highly effective in preventing persistent urinary tract infections in all but two young women they studied. Laboratory tests uncovered the apparent reason for the two exceptions. Both women harbored infection-causing bacteria in their systems that were resistant to antibiotics, making the drugs unable to kill the bacteria.
NEWS
June 4, 1997 | JONATHAN BOR, THE BALTIMORE SUN
People striving to sterilize their homes and hands with anti-bacterial soaps may be fueling the development of dangerous organisms that defy known drugs, according to an authority on drug-resistant strains. Dr. Stuart Levy of Tufts University, president of the Alliance for Prudent Use of Antibiotics, said last week that the popularity of disinfectant cleaners could not come at a worse time--an era when hospitals are discharging patients earlier to complete their recoveries at home.
NEWS
November 13, 2012 | By Eryn Brown, Los Angeles Times
Patterns of antibiotic overuse vary in the U.S. vary by region, with residents of some Southeastern states taking about twice as many antibiotics per capita as residents in some Western states. According to the Washington-based Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics and Policy , Kentucky, West Virginia, Tennessee, Mississippi and Louisiana were the states with the highest rates of antibiotic use in 2010. Those states had more than one antibiotic prescription per capita in 2010.  The states with the lowest use of antibiotics that year were Alaska, Hawaii, California, Oregon and Washington, with just over one prescription for every two people.  Overall, the rate of antibiotic prescriptions in the U.S. declined from 966 prescriptions for each 1,000 residents in 1999 to 801 in 2010.
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