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Plos Medicine

SCIENCE
July 30, 2013 | By Karen Kaplan, This post has been corrected, as indicated below.
Women, wouldn't you like to know your precise risk of developing breast cancer, ovarian cancer and endometrial cancer? And wouldn't you like to know what changes you could make in your life to reduce that risk? Researchers from the National Cancer Institute would like to help you. They've just published a study in the journal PLOS Medicine that takes a significant step toward that goal. Ruth Pfeiffer , a senior investigator in the National Cancer Institute's Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, and colleagues focused on the predictive value of more than a dozen variables, including a woman's body mass index , number of children she has, how long she took birth control pills, whether she used hormone therapy to treat symptoms of menopause, family history of gynecological cancers, and use of cigarettes and alcohol.
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SCIENCE
May 28, 2011 | By Eryn Brown, Los Angeles Times
Medical researchers have unlocked the human genome, wiped out smallpox and made great strides in the fight against AIDS. They have also published studies revealing that: Alcohol increases reaction time and errors during decision-making. • People who live in safe, well-lit neighborhoods are more likely to walk and get exercise. • College drinking is just as bad as researchers thought, but not worse than expected (try pondering that one after chugging a beer). Well, duh, you might think — and you wouldn't be the first.
SCIENCE
November 26, 2013 | By Monte Morin, This post has been updated, as indicated below.
The 2009 H1N1 "swine flu" epidemic killed up to 203,000 people across the globe -- a death toll 10 times greater than initially estimated by the World Health Organization, researchers say. In a study published Tuesday in the journal Plos Medicine, epidemiologists used data on respiratory deaths in 20 nations to calculate a global mortality rate for the pandemic. Prior to this research, the WHO counted just 18,631 lab-confirmed cases of H1N1, a viral infection of the airways.
HEALTH
January 20, 2011 | By Amina Khan, Los Angeles Times
Are people who suffer from mental illnesses more likely to commit violent crimes? That question has been on the nation's mind since a 22-year-old community college dropout with a history of odd behavior was charged with shooting 19 people outside a Tucson supermarket this month, killing six and wounding Rep. Gabrielle Giffords (D-Ariz.), who police say was his target. The answer may seem obvious to the general public, given the popularity of movies, TV shows and books in which mentally unbalanced individuals are portrayed as homicidal maniacs.
NEWS
June 20, 2012 | By Mary MacVean
Multinational food corporations have a growing influence on the health of people around the world, including obesity, and their actions need greater scrutiny, according to an editorial Tuesday in the journal Public Library of Science Medicine. The editorial kicks off the journal's three-week series looking at what it calls “Big Food.” The first articles, and the editorial, criticize not just the food companies but also officials charged with protecting public health. “The big multinational food companies control what people everywhere eat, resulting in a stark and sick irony: one billion people on the planet are hungry while 2 billion are obese or overweight,” the editorial says.
WORLD
September 28, 2008 | Richard Boudreaux, Times Staff Writer
With $3 billion in new pledges, world leaders say they believe that an ambitious goal to stop deaths from malaria by 2015 is finally within reach. A plan billed as the most comprehensive ever to tackle the mosquito-borne disease, which kills nearly 1 million people each year, was unveiled last week at a United Nations gathering of heads of government, global health leaders and philanthropists.
SCIENCE
July 2, 2013 | By Melissa Healy
The twin plagues of economic hardship and low academic attainment turn out to be an inflammatory problem, not just for society but for the human bodies beset by them. And for many, including those in minority groups who disproportionately experience stunted economic and academic prospects, high rates of Type 2 diabetes are the common result, a new study says. The new research, based on a long-running study of British government workers, offers a partial explanation for a trend that is firmly established in industrialized democracies -- that where calories are plentifully available, those clinging to the lower rungs of the economic ladder are most likely to develop Type 2 diabetes.
NEWS
January 5, 2011 | By Karen Kaplan, Los Angeles Times
Before embarking on a medically invasive, expensive and emotionally taxing effort to get pregnant through in vitro fertilization, it sure would be nice to get a good sense of whether it’s likely to work. After all, only about 1 in 4 attempts resulted in a live birth as recently as 2007. So researchers from England and Scotland scoured data from more than 144,000 IVF cycles in the United Kingdom and looked for factors that might predict which couples stood the best chance of having a baby with assisted reproduction and which faced long-shot odds.
SCIENCE
May 12, 2009 | Thomas H. Maugh II
Taking folic acid supplements for a year before conception reduces the risk of very premature birth by at least 50%, researchers reported Monday. Shorter courses of the supplement were not as effective, according to the study of nearly 35,000 women reported in the Public Library of Science journal PLoS Medicine. Folic acid's effectiveness in reducing the risk of neural-tube and other birth defects -- even without such a long course -- is long established.
SCIENCE
September 5, 2012 | By Thomas H. Maugh II
Researchers have discovered a gene mutation that protects people in Southeast Asia against malaria in much the same fashion that a sickle cell trait protects Africans from the disease. But while the sickle cell protects against the frequently lethal form of the disease caused by the parasite Plasmodium falciparum , the newly discovered gene mutation protects against Plasmodium vivax , which is generally thought to be more benign. Malaria causes an estimated 1 million deaths per year worldwide, and at least half the world's population lives in areas at risk for the disease.
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