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NEWS
December 31, 1991
Oct. 25, 1917 (Nov. 7 by the new calendar)--Bolsheviks led by V.I. Lenin take power in a relatively bloodless coup, declaring "all power to the soviets," or councils of workers. March, 1918--Allied troops (U.S., British, French) intervene in Russian Civil War on the side of the White (anti-Bolshevik) forces. They leave the following year. December, 1922--Bolshevik control firmly established: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics proclaimed. Jan.
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NEWS
December 31, 1991
On June 22, 1941, more than 3 million German troops invaded the Soviet Union in a lightning attack, drawing the Red Army into World War II. The war destroyed most of the nation's industry and took more than 20 million Soviet lives. But Soviet forces played a decisive role in ending Hitler's aggression--and also managed to establish Soviet control over Eastern and Central Europe, laying the foundations for its status as a superpower.
NEWS
December 30, 1991 | OSWALD JOHNSTON, TIMES STAFF WRITER
Never before has the end come so quickly. It began as the Russian Empire of the czars, who centuries ago proclaimed Muscovy as history's "Third Rome." It later became the Soviet Empire, heralded by Lenin and Stalin as the logical extension of history's vanguard. On Christmas Day, it simply ceased to exist. Historically, empires tend to linger for decades, sometimes centuries, past their prime. Consider the Romans, who were expelled from their capital by barbarian invaders in the year 410.
NEWS
December 29, 1991 | JONATHAN PETERSON, TIMES STAFF WRITER
Russian leaders, alarmed that their nation has slipped so drastically behind the West, throw open the doors to foreign consultants. Sound familiar? Actually, the 1980s surge in East-West business ties is a footnote to a much larger--if little-known--story of how Americans helped build the modern Soviet Union before the Cold War, setting up steel mills, auto plants, machine factories, the very basis of its military-industrial might.
NEWS
December 29, 1991 | JONATHAN PETERSON, TIMES STAFF WRITER
Back in the Great Depression, in the days when communism was a gleaming red star that beckoned working-class dreamers from across the sea, 24-year-old Rose Kostyuk packed her bags and moved to Russia. It was an exciting adventure for a spunky young social worker from Philadelphia. Thousands of miles away, the first real socialist state was being hammered together. Idealists everywhere felt a magnetic pull toward this utopian land of Lenin. All the possibilities of a lifetime lay ahead.
NEWS
December 26, 1991 | Associated Press / Los Angeles Times
V.I. Lenin: Led the Bolshevik Revolution in 1917. Premier of Council of People's Commissars until he died in office Jan. 21, 1924. Josef Stalin: Longest-ruling Soviet leader; succeeded Lenin. General secretary of the Communist Party from 1922 to 1953. Named chairman of Council of Ministers (or premier) May, 1941. Died in office March 5, 1953. Georgi M. Malenkov: Took over Stalin's post as premier from March, 1953, until February, 1955. Nikita S.
NEWS
December 19, 1991 | ELIZABETH SHOGREN, TIMES STAFF WRITER
Branislava S. Fridman has been teaching history to Moscow schoolchildren for 41 years, but these days she has to spend three hours a night preparing her lessons. That's because much of what she used to teach now looks more like fiction than history. And Fridman, along with so many other teachers, is searching for the truth.
NEWS
November 9, 1991 | CAREY GOLDBERG, TIMES STAFF WRITER
They have known hard times before, the makers of Soviet encyclopedias. There were all those awkward junctures such as the time when Josef Stalin's infamous chief of the secret police, Lavrenti Beria, fell into disgrace and all Great Soviet Encyclopedia owners were ordered to cut his entry out of the "B" volume and paste in more than anyone could ever want to know about the Bering Strait.
NEWS
October 23, 1991 | Reuters
A mass grave containing the bodies of thousands of Buddhist monks killed on the orders of Soviet dictator Josef Stalin has been discovered in western Mongolia, British television reported Tuesday. The grave near the western town of Moron was filled with the remains of monks killed in a brutal suppression of the Lamaist faith under Communist rule, the British Broadcasting Corporation said.
NEWS
October 1, 1991 | ELIZABETH SHOGREN, TIMES STAFF WRITER
The 32 pupils in Mrs. Sidneva's third-grade class listened with rapt attention Monday as she described how Nazi soldiers shot more than 30,000 people in two days 50 years ago in a wooded area on the edge of Kiev. "The Nazis hated all of us--the Ukrainians, the Russians and the Byelorussians--but who did they hate the most?" Inna M. Sidneva asked the 8- and 9-year-olds sitting erect at their desks. Several hands shot up, and the teacher motioned to a boy sitting in the front row.
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